# Direct observation of ion dynamics in supercapacitor electrodes using $extit{in situ}$ diffusion NMR spectroscopy

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Publication Date: 2017-02-06

Journal Title: Nature Energy

Publisher: Nature Publishing Group

Volume: 2

Number: 16216

Language: English

Type: Article

This Version: AM

Citation: Forse, A. C., Griffin, J. M., Merlet, C. C., Carretero Gonzalez, J., Raji, A., Trease, N. M., & Grey, C. P. (2017). Direct observation of ion dynamics in supercapacitor electrodes using $\textit{in situ}$ diffusion NMR spectroscopy. Nature Energy, 2 (16216)https://doi.org/10.1038/nenergy.2016.216

Abstract: Ionic transport inside porous carbon electrodes underpins the storage of energy in supercapacitors and the rate at which they can charge and discharge, yet few studies have elucidated the materials properties that influence ion dynamics. Here we use $\textit{in situ}$ pulsed field gradient NMR spectroscopy to measure ionic diffusion in supercapacitors directly. We find that confinement in the nanoporous electrode structures decreases the effective self-diffusion coefficients of ions by over two orders of magnitude compared with neat electrolyte, and in-pore diffusion is modulated by changes in ion populations at the electrode/electrolyte interface during charging. Electrolyte concentration and carbon pore size distributions also affect inpore diffusion and the movement of ions in and out of the nanopores. In light of our findings we propose that controlling the charging mechanism may allow the tuning of the energy and power performances of supercapacitors for a range of different applications.

Keywords: porous materials, solid-state NMR, supercapacitors

Relationships: Is supplemented by: https://doi.org/10.17863/CAM.7075

Sponsorship: The authors acknowledge the EPSRC (through the Supergen consortium for A.C.F., J.M.G. and J.C.-G.), the School of the Physical Sciences of the University of Cambridge (via an Oppenheimer Research Fellowship, C.M.), the EU Graphene Flagship (A.-R.O.R.), and the EU ERC (through an Advanced Fellowship to C.P.G.) for financial support. This work was also supported as part of the NorthEast Center for Chemical Energy Storage (NECCES), an Energy Frontier Research Center funded by the US Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Science, Basic Energy Sciences, under Award no. DE-SC0012583 (N.M.T.).

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External DOI: https://doi.org/10.1038/nenergy.2016.216

This record's URL: https://www.repository.cam.ac.uk/handle/1810/263095

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Autor: Forse, Alexander CharlesGriffin, John Matthew Merlet, Celine CamilleCarretero Gonzalez, JavierRaji, AROTrease, Nicole MarieGrey, C

Fuente: https://www.repository.cam.ac.uk/handle/1810/263095

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