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 INFECTIOUS DISEASES


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INTRODUCTION

Despite decades of dramatic progress in their treatm-ent & prevention, infectious diseases remain a major cause of death & are responsible for worsening the living conditions of many millions people around the world. Infections frequently challenge the clinician’s diagnostic skill. Many factors affect the likelihood of acquiring infection ẃ include, host, environmental & microbial factors, & environ- mental factors. For any infectious process to occur, the parasite & the host must first encounter each other. Factors such as geo-graphy, environment disease vectors & host behavior thus influence the likelihood of infection. Many host fac-tors as age, immunization, prior illness, nutritional status, pregnancy, coexisting illnesses & emotional st-atus all have some impact on the risk of infection aft-er exposure to particular pathogen. Medical care itself can ñ the pt’s risk of acquiring an infection ẃ can oc-cur in several ways; either through contact é the path-ogen during hospitalization or through injections, sur-gical incisions, via mucosal surfaces by ETT or bladder catheters, or through introduction of foreign bodies, or through alteration of the natural flora é antibiotics, or through Rx é suppressive drugs as steroids.Infecti-on involves complicated interaction between parasi-tes & host. In most cases a pathogenic process cons-isting of several steps is required for the development of infection. Since the competent host has a complex series of defense mechanisms to prevent infection, the successful parasite must utilize specific strategies at each of these steps. The specific strategies used by bacteria, viruses & parasites have some similarities, but the details are unique not only for each class of organism but also for individual species in each class.



Autor: Dr osama Alagamawy

Fuente: https://archive.org/







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