Vol 9: Heritability and Clinical Determinants of Serum Indoxyl Sulfate and p-Cresyl Sulfate, Candidate Biomarkers of the Human Microbiome Enterotype.Reportar como inadecuado



 Vol 9: Heritability and Clinical Determinants of Serum Indoxyl Sulfate and p-Cresyl Sulfate, Candidate Biomarkers of the Human Microbiome Enterotype.


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This article is from PLoS ONE, volume 9.AbstractBackground: Indoxyl sulfate and p-cresyl sulfate are unique microbial co-metabolites. Both co-metabolites have been involved in the pathogenesis of accelerated cardiovascular disease and renal disease progression. Available evidence suggests that indoxyl sulfate and p-cresyl sulfate may be considered candidate biomarkers of the human enterotype and may help to explain the link between diet and cardiovascular disease burden. Objective and Design: Information on clinical determinants and heritability of indoxyl sulfate and p-cresyl sulfate serum is non-existing. To clarify this issue, the authors determined serum levels of indoxyl sulfate and p-cresyl sulfate in 773 individuals, recruited in the frame of the Flemish Study on Environment, Genes and Health Outcomes (FLEMENGHO study). Results: Serum levels of indoxyl sulfate and p-cresyl sulfate amounted to 3.1 (2.4–4.3) and 13.0 (7.4–21.5) μM, respectively. Regression analysis identified renal function, age and sex as independent determinants of both co-metabolites. Both serum indoxyl sulfate (h2 = 0.17) and p-cresyl sulfate (h2 = 0.18) concentrations showed moderate but significant heritability after adjustment for covariables, with significant genetic and environmental correlations for both co-metabolites. Limitations: Family studies cannot provide conclusive evidence for a genetic contribution, as confounding by shared environmental effects can never be excluded. Conclusions: The heritability of indoxyl sulfate and p-cresyl sulfate is moderate. Besides genetic host factors and environmental factors, also renal function, sex and age influence the serum levels of these co-metabolites.



Autor: Viaene, Liesbeth; Thijs, Lutgarde; Jin, Yu; Liu, Yanping; Gu, Yumei; Meijers, Bjorn; Claes, Kathleen; Staessen, Jan; Evenepoel, Pieter

Fuente: https://archive.org/



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