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Editor: Universidad Carlos III de Madrid. Departamento de Economía

Issued date: 2007-08

ISSN: 2340-5031

Serie-No.: UC3M Working papers. Economics07-42

Keywords: Education , Gender , Caste , Political economy , India

JEL Classification: D70 , H19 , H40 , I2 , O10

Rights: Atribución-NoComercial-SinDerivadas 3.0 España

Abstract:This paper shows that the gender of politicians affects the educational levels of individuals whogrow up in the districts where these politicians are elected. Increasing female politicalrepresentation by 10 percentage points increases the probability that This paper shows that the gender of politicians affects the educational levels of individuals whogrow up in the districts where these politicians are elected. Increasing female politicalrepresentation by 10 percentage points increases the probability that an individual attainsprimary education in urban areas by 6 percentage points, which is 21% of the difference inprimary education attainment between the richest and the poorest Indian states. Caste alsomatters, as female politicians who won seats reserved for lower castes and disadvantaged tribesare those who mainly have an effect. In addition, both the gender and caste of politiciansdetermine who benefits more from their policies: in urban areas female politicians increaseeducational achievements of those of their gender and caste. A unique dataset collected onpoliticians in India is matched with individual data by cohort and district of residence. Thepolitical data allow the identification of close elections between women and men, which yieldquasi-experimental election outcomes used to estimate the causal effect of the gender ofpoliticians.+-





Author: Clots-Figueras, Irma

Source: http://e-archivo.uc3m.es


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Universidad Carlos III de Madrid Repositorio institucional e-Archivo http:--e-archivo.uc3m.es Departamento de Economía DE - Working Papers.
Economics.
WE 2007-08 Are female leaders good for education? : Evidence from India Clots-Figueras, Irma http:--hdl.handle.net-10016-1074 Descargado de e-Archivo, repositorio institucional de la Universidad Carlos III de Madrid Working Paper 07-73 Economic Series 42 August 2007 Departamento de Economía Universidad Carlos III de Madrid Calle Madrid, 126 28903 Getafe (Spain) Fax (34) 91 6249875 Are Female Leaders Good for Education? Evidence from India.∗ † Irma Clots-Figueras Department of Economics, Universidad Carlos III de Madrid. Abstract This paper shows that the gender of politicians affects the educational levels of individuals who grow up in the districts where these politicians are elected.
Increasing female political representation by 10 percentage points increases the probability that an individual attains primary education in urban areas by 6 percentage points, which is 21% of the difference in primary education attainment between the richest and the poorest Indian states.
Caste also matters, as female politicians who won seats reserved for lower castes and disadvantaged tribes are those who mainly have an effect.
In addition, both the gender and caste of politicians determine who benefits more from their policies: in urban areas female politicians increase educational achievements of those of their gender and caste.
A unique dataset collected on politicians in India is matched with individual data by cohort and district of residence.
The political data allow the identification of close elections between women and men, which yield quasi-experimental election outcomes used to estimate the causal effect of the gender of politicians. JEL Classification: D70, H19, H40, I2, O10. Keywords: Education, Gender, Caste, Political Economy, India. ∗ I am indebted to Oriana Bandiera and Robin Burgess for their g...





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