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Clinical and Translational Medicine

, 4:33

First Online: 24 November 2015Received: 22 June 2015Accepted: 15 October 2015DOI: 10.1186-s40169-015-0074-1

Cite this article as: Carper, M.B. & Claudio, P.P. Clin Trans Med 2015 4: 33. doi:10.1186-s40169-015-0074-1


Lung cancer is the most common cancer type worldwide and the leading cause of cancer related deaths in the United States. The majority of newly diagnosed patients present with late stage metastatic lung cancer that is inoperable and resistant to therapies. High-throughput genomic technologies have made the identification of genetic mutations that promote lung cancer progression possible. Identification of the mutations that drive lung cancer provided new targets for non-small cell lung cancer NSCLC treatment and led to the development of targeted therapies such as tyrosine kinase inhibitors that can be used to combat the molecular changes that promote cancer progression. Development of targeted therapies is not the only clinical benefit of gene analysis studies. Biomarkers identified from gene analysis can be used for early lung cancer detection, determine patient’s prognosis and response to therapy, and monitor disease progression. Biomarkers can be used to identify the NSCLC patient population that would most benefit from treatment targeted therapies or chemotherapies, providing clinicians tools that can be used to develop a personalized treatment plan. This review explores the clinical potential of NSCLC genetic studies on diagnosing and treating NSCLC.

KeywordsNSCLC Mutations Targeted therapy Personalized therapy Biomarkers Bench-to-bedside AbbreviationsAKTv-akt murine thymoma vial oncogene homolog 1

ALKAnaplastic lymphoma kinase

BRAFv-raf murine sarcoma viral oncogene homolog B

CTComputed tomography

cDNACirculating DNA

ctDNACirculating tumor DNA

CTCCirculating tumor cells

EGFREpidermal growth factor receptor

EML4-ALKEchinoderm microtubule associated protein like 4 and anaplastic lymphoma kinase fusion

FGFR1Fibroblast growth factor receptor 1

KRASv-Ki-ras2 Kirsten rat sarcoma viral oncogene homolog

NSCLCNon-small cell lung cancer

SCLCSmall-cell lung cancer

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Autor: Miranda B. Carper - Pier Paolo Claudio


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