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, Volume 29, Issue 3, pp 411–415

First Online: 08 March 2016Received: 01 March 2016Accepted: 02 March 2016DOI: 10.1007-s10534-016-9923-7

Cite this article as: Gupta, A., Pratt, R.D. & Crumbliss, A.L. Biometals 2016 29: 411. doi:10.1007-s10534-016-9923-7


The observed biological differences in safety and efficacy of intravenous IV iron formulations are attributable to physicochemical differences. In addition to differences in carbohydrate shell, polarographic signatures due to ferric iron FeIII and ferrous iron FeII differ among IV iron formulations. Intravenous iron contains FeII and releases labile iron in the circulation. FeII generates toxic free radicals and reactive oxygen species and binds to bacterial siderophores and other in vivo sequestering agents. To evaluate whether differences in FeII content may account for some observed biological differences between IV iron formulations, samples from multiple lots of various IV iron formulations were dissolved in 12 M concentrated HCl to dissociate and release all iron and then diluted with water to achieve 0.1 M HCl concentration. FeII was then directly measured using ferrozine reagent and ultraviolet spectroscopy at 562 nm. Total iron content was measured by adding an excess of ascorbic acid to reduce FeIII to FeII, and FeII was then measured by ferrozine assay. The FeII concentration as a proportion of total iron content FeIII + FeII in different lots of IV iron formulations was as follows: iron gluconate, 1.4 and 1.8 %; ferumoxytol, 0.26 %; ferric carboxymaltose, 1.4 %; iron dextran, 0.8 %; and iron sucrose, 10.2, 15.5, and 11.0 % average, 12.2 %. The average FeII content in iron sucrose was, therefore, ≥7.5-fold higher than in the other IV iron formulations. Further studies are needed to investigate the relationship between FeII content and increased risk of oxidative stress and infections with iron sucrose.

KeywordsChronic hemodialysis Ferric iron Ferrous iron Intravenous iron Iron supplementation  Download fulltext PDF

Autor: Ajay Gupta - Raymond D. Pratt - Alvin L. Crumbliss

Fuente: https://link.springer.com/

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