Synkinesis assessment in facial palsy: validation of the Dutch Synkinesis Assessment QuestionnaireReport as inadecuate

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Acta Neurologica Belgica

, Volume 116, Issue 2, pp 171–178

First Online: 16 September 2015Received: 23 May 2015Accepted: 06 August 2015DOI: 10.1007-s13760-015-0528-7

Cite this article as: Kleiss, I.J., Beurskens, C.H.G., Stalmeier, P.F.M. et al. Acta Neurol Belg 2016 116: 171. doi:10.1007-s13760-015-0528-7


The objective of this study is to validate an existing health-related quality of life questionnaire for patients with synkinesis in facial palsy for implementation in the Dutch language and culture. The Synkinesis Assessment Questionnaire was translated into the Dutch language using a forward–backward translation method. A pilot test with the translated questionnaire was performed in 10 patients with facial palsy and 10 normal subjects. Finally, cross-cultural adaption was accomplished at our outpatient clinic for facial palsy. Analyses for internal consistency, test–retest reliability, and construct validity were performed. Sixty-six patients completed the Dutch Synkinesis Assessment Questionnaire and the Dutch Facial Disability Index. Cronbach’s α, representing internal consistency, was 0.80. Test–retest reliability was 0.53 Spearman’s correlation coefficient, P < 0.01. Correlations with the House-Brackmann score, Sunnybrook score, Facial Disability Index physical function, and social-well-being function were −0.29, 0.20, −0.29, and −0.32, respectively. Correlation with the Sunnybrook synkinesis subscore was 0.50 Spearman’s correlation coefficient. The Dutch Synkinesis Assessment Questionnaire shows good psychometric values and can be implemented in the management of Dutch-speaking patients with facial palsy and synkinesis in the Netherlands. Translation of the instrument into other languages may lead to widespread use, making evaluation, and comparison possible among different providers.

KeywordsFacial palsy Synkinesis Assessment Synkinesis Assessment Questionnaire Translation Validation  Download fulltext PDF

Author: Ingrid J. Kleiss - Carien H. G. Beurskens - Peep F. M. Stalmeier - Koen J. A. O. Ingels - Henri A. M. Marres



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