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Journal of Translational Medicine

, 13:11

First Online: 16 January 2015Received: 19 November 2014Accepted: 11 December 2014DOI: 10.1186-s12967-014-0362-3

Cite this article as: Chiappelli, F., Bakhordarian, A., Thames, A.D. et al. J Transl Med 2015 13: 11. doi:10.1186-s12967-014-0362-3

Abstract

We are currently in the midst of the most aggressive and fulminating outbreak of Ebola-related disease, commonly referred to as -Ebola-, ever recorded. In less than a year, the Ebola virus EBOV, Zaire ebolavirus species has infected over 10,000 people, indiscriminately of gender or age, with a fatality rate of about 50%. Whereas at its onset this Ebola outbreak was limited to three countries in West Africa Guinea, where it was first reported in late March 2014, Liberia, where it has been most rampant in its capital city, Monrovia and other metropolitan cities, and Sierra Leone, cases were later reported in Nigeria, Mali and Senegal, as well as in Western Europe i.e., Madrid, Spain and the US i.e., Dallas, Texas; New York City by late October 2014. World and US health agencies declared that the current Ebola virus disease EVD outbreak has a strong likelihood of growing exponentially across the world before an effective vaccine, treatment or cure can be developed, tested, validated and distributed widely. In the meantime, the spread of the disease may rapidly evolve from an epidemics to a full-blown pandemic. The scientific and healthcare communities actively research and define an emerging kaleidoscope of knowledge about critical translational research parameters, including the virology of EBOV, the molecular biomarkers of the pathological manifestations of EVD, putative central nervous system involvement in EVD, and the cellular immune surveillance to EBOV, patient-centered anthropological and societal parameters of EVD, as well as translational effectiveness about novel putative patient-targeted vaccine and pharmaceutical interventions, which hold strong promise, if not hope, to curb this and future Ebola outbreaks. This work reviews and discusses the principal known facts about EBOV and EVD, and certain among the most interesting ongoing or future avenues of research in the field, including vaccination programs for the wild animal vectors of the virus and the disease from global translational science perspective.

KeywordsZaire Ebola virus Ebola virus disease Cell-mediated immune surveillance Vaccine Blood–brain barrier M1 and M2 macrophages Epidemic Pandemic Syndemic Zoonotic AbbreviationsACCN1Amiloride-sensitive cation channel neuron-1

BBBBlood brain barrier

CCR2Chemokine receptor type 2

CDCCenter for Disease Control and Prevention

CDC5LCell division cycle 5-like protein

CEBPECCAAT-enhancer binding protein-ε

CIConfidence interval at 95%

CLDN3Claudin 3

CNSCentral nervous system

CRHR2Corticotropin releasing hormone receptor 2

CSFCerebrospinal fluid

DAMPDamage-associated molecular patterns

DNA-PKCsDNA-dependent serine-threonine protein kinase, catalytic subunit

EIDsEmerging infectious diseases

EVDEbola virus disease

EBOVEbolavirus

FAM63APutative cytoskeletal protein

HMP19Neuron-specific protein family member 2

ICAM1Intercellular adhesion molecule-1

ICOSInducible costimulator

IFN-γInterferon-γ

IIDInterferon inhibitory domain

ILxInterleukin-x

IL2RAInterleukin-2 receptor-α, CD25

ILF2Interleukin enhancer-binding factor 2

ILF3Interleukin enhancer-binding factor 3

IP-10Interferon gamma-induced protein 10

iNOSinducible nitric oxide synthase

IRF3-7Interferon regulatory factor 3 and 7

JAK-STATJanus kinase JAK-Signal transducer and activator of transcription STAT

LPSLipopolysaccharide

LTFLactoferrin

MBGVMarburg virus

M-CSFMacrophage colony-stimulating factor

MCP-1Monocyte chemotactic protein 1 also known as CCL2

MIP-1α-βmacrophage inflammatory protein-1 α-β also known as CCL3 and CCL4

MIFMacrophage migration inhibitory factor

NDUFA12NADH dehydrogenase ubiquinone 1 alpha subcomplex subunit 12

PAI1Plasminogen activator inhibitor 1

PAMPPathogen-associated molecular patterns

PPEPersonal protective equipment

PSMA1Proteasome subunit alpha type-1

R0Contact or exposure rates

RIGIRetinoic acid inducible gene-I

RCHY1Ring-finger and CHY-zinc finger domain-containing protein 1

RT-PCRReverse transcription polymerase chain reaction

RUVBL2RuvB-like 2 E. coli, second human homologue of the bacterial RuvB gene

sGPsoluble glycoprotein

sICAM1soluble intracellular adhesion molecule 1

sVCAM1soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule 1

ssGPsmall soluble glycoprotein

SECISSeleno-cysteine insertion sequences

SLC9A7Solute carrier family 9, subfamily A, member 7

SLC38A5Sodium-coupled neutral amino acid transporter 5

STAT1Signal transducers and activators of transcription-1

TBK1-IKKεTANK-binding kinase 1-IkappaB kinase epsilon

TFTissue factor

TIM-1T cell immunoglobulin and mucin domain 1

TNF-αTumor necrosis factor-α

TregsRegulatory T cell subpopulation CD4-8 + CD25 + FoxP3+

vGP1,2viral glycoprotein 1,2

VHFsViral hemorrhagic fevers

VLPVirus-like particle

VPViral protein

WHOWorld Health Organization

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Autor: Francesco Chiappelli - Andre Bakhordarian - April D Thames - Angela M Du - Allison L Jan - Melissa Nahcivan - Mia T Ngu

Fuente: https://link.springer.com/







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