en fr NATURAL RESOURCE MANAGEMENT DYNAMICS IN BORDER COMMUNITIES OF KYRGYZSTAN AND TAJIKISTAN. RESEARCH REPORT Les dynamiques de gestion des ressources naturelles dans les communautés frontalières du Kyrgyzstan et du TadjikistaReportar como inadecuado




en fr NATURAL RESOURCE MANAGEMENT DYNAMICS IN BORDER COMMUNITIES OF KYRGYZSTAN AND TAJIKISTAN. RESEARCH REPORT Les dynamiques de gestion des ressources naturelles dans les communautés frontalières du Kyrgyzstan et du Tadjikista - Descarga este documento en PDF. Documentación en PDF para descargar gratis. Disponible también para leer online.

1 MSRI - Mountain Society Research Institute, University of Central Asia 2 EVS - Environnement Ville Société 3 CRGA - Centre de Recherche de Géographie et Aménagement Lyon 3 EVS - Environnement Ville Société

Abstract : This report presents research conducted between September 2015 and February 2016 in Batken oblast, Kyrgyzstan, and Soghd oblast, Tajikistan, within the framework of the project -Reducing conflict over water and pastures in Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan.- The project is supported by the United Kingdom’s new Conflict, Stability and Security Fund CSSF.Research on conflict over natural resources is generally focussed on preventing violence; less attention is paid to the dynamics of disputes and cooperation. Conflicts over natural resources are particularly acute along the Tajik-Kyrgyz border, affecting the livelihood of households in Batken and Soghd oblasts, where around a quarter of the population still lives below the poverty line. Inhabitants are primarily involved in cultivating crops and keeping livestock and rely on the transborder use of water and pasture resources to do so. As border regimes and institutional management rules change, farmers face constraints in accessing these resources. A wide range of stakeholders are involved in both formal projects and informal initiatives to reduce conflicts and facilitate access to resources. This report is based on transversal research on the different types of interventions led by governmental agencies, local NGOs and international organisations and their impact on transborder and border region natural resource management.The methods of data collection and analysis varied according to the three main phases of research: 1 literature review; 2 interviews with experts in the field; and 3 case studies. The literature review helped define the conceptual framework and analyse reforms relating to the use of irrigation water and pastures and their impact on conflict and cooperation in Batken and Soghd. It also highlighted the lack of academic publications or project documentation on natural resource management efforts and identified key research gaps. Expert interviews held at the national and oblast levels in both countries investigated resource use and management, and tested the hypotheses and underlying approaches of projects aimed at fostering cooperation and reducing tensions. The case studies were conducted in areas of divergent resources dynamics: one was characterised by a high level of conflict, in the other no tensions were reported. In addition to the three research phases, a roundtable was held in Bishkek on 11 February 2016 to discuss preliminary findings with government institutions, non-governmental organisations and researchers. More than 50 participants shared their views on water and pasture reforms in Tajikistan and Kyrgyzstan and on cooperation processes in transborder areas.The research found that tensions arise primarily over the use and management of natural resources, and are aggravated by militarisation of the border. The transformation of internal boundaries in Soviet times to international borders post-1991 strongly affected access to natural resources and changed the nature of interactions between border communities. Reforms have led to the creation of community-based institutions in both countries; however these institutions can differ significantly in their capacities and mandates, relying on national decision makers to deal with most transborder issues. In some areas, farmers remain excluded from the formulation of management plans by formal institutions.This report is distilled into a policy brief see http:-www.ucentralasia.org-Resources-Item-1148 for policy makers, relevant governmental agencies, and oblast, rayon, jaomat and AA representatives as well as international organisations, donors and non-governmental organisations.The research team included MSRI Research Fellow Asel Murzakulova and Research Consultant Irène Mestre. Their collaborative work resulted in this report, a policy brief, and a series of maps illustrating the geographic distribution of infrastructure and other development interventions by MSRI’s partner organizations MSDSP Tajikistan, MSDSP Kyrgyzstan, Roza Otunbaeva Initiative and CAMP Alatoo in the framework of the -Reducing conflict over water and pastures in Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan- project.

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Keywords : border postsoviet community-based management Central Asia pasture water

Mots-clés : eau Asie Centrale pâturages frontière post-soviétique gestion communautaire





Autor: Asel Murzakulova - Irène Mestre -

Fuente: https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/



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