Blood-Brain Barrier Disruption Induced by Chronic Sleep Loss: Low-Grade Inflammation May Be the LinkReport as inadecuate

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Journal of Immunology Research - Volume 2016 2016, Article ID 4576012, 15 pages -

Review Article

Area of Neurosciences, Department of Biology of Reproduction, CBS, Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana-Iztapalapa, Mexico City, Mexico

Department of Psychoimmunology, National Institute of Psychiatry -Ramón de la Fuente-, Mexico City, Mexico

Received 26 March 2016; Revised 14 August 2016; Accepted 24 August 2016

Academic Editor: Douglas C. Hooper

Copyright © 2016 G. Hurtado-Alvarado et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Sleep is a vital phenomenon related to immunomodulation at the central and peripheral level. Sleep deficient in duration and-or quality is a common problem in the modern society and is considered a risk factor to develop neurodegenerative diseases. Sleep loss in rodents induces blood-brain barrier disruption and the underlying mechanism is still unknown. Several reports indicate that sleep loss induces a systemic low-grade inflammation characterized by the release of several molecules, such as cytokines, chemokines, and acute-phase proteins; all of them may promote changes in cellular components of the blood-brain barrier, particularly on brain endothelial cells. In the present review we discuss the role of inflammatory mediators that increase during sleep loss and their association with general disturbances in peripheral endothelium and epithelium and how those inflammatory mediators may alter the blood-brain barrier. Finally, this manuscript proposes a hypothetical mechanism by which sleep loss may induce blood-brain barrier disruption, emphasizing the regulatory effect of inflammatory molecules on tight junction proteins.

Author: G. Hurtado-Alvarado, E. Domínguez-Salazar, L. Pavon, J. Velázquez-Moctezuma, and B. Gómez-González



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