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Journal of Health, Population and Nutrition

, 36:2

First Online: 13 January 2017Received: 28 September 2016Accepted: 23 December 2016DOI: 10.1186-s41043-016-0078-5

Cite this article as: Rahman, A., Nisha, M.K., Begum, T. et al. J Health Popul Nutr 2017 36: 2. doi:10.1186-s41043-016-0078-5


BackgroundThe objectives of this study are to document the trend on utilisation of four or more 4 antenatal care ANC over the last 22 years period and to explore the determinants and inequity of 4 ANC utilisation as reported by the last two Bangladesh Demographic and Health surveys BDHS 2011 and 2014.

MethodsThe data related to ANC have been extracted from the BDHS data set which is available online as an open source. STATA 13 software was used for organising and analysing the data. The outcome variable considered for this study was utilisation of 4 ANC. Trends of 4 ANC were measured in percentage and predictors for 4 ANC were measured through bivariate and multivariable analysis. The concentration index was estimated for assessing inequity in 4 ANC utilisation.

ResultsUtilisation of 4 ANC has increased by about 26% between the year 1994 and 2014. Higher level of education, residing in urban region and richest wealth quintile were found to be significant predictors. The utilisation of 4 ANC has decreased with increasing parity and maternal age. The inequity indices showed consistent inequities in 4 ANC utilisation, and such inequities were increased between 2011 and 2014.

ConclusionsIn Bangladesh, the utilisation of any ANC rose steadily between 1994 and 2014, but progress in terms of 4 ANC utilisation was much slower as the expectation was to achieve the national set target 50%: 4 ANC utilisation by 2016. Socio-economic inequities were observed in groups that failed to attend a 4 ANC visit. Policymakers should pay special attention to increase the 4 ANC coverage where this study can facilitate to identify the target groups whom need to be intervened on priority basis.

KeywordsAntenatal care Trends Determinants Inequality Bangladesh Abbreviations4 ANC4 or more Ante Natal Care

BDHSBangladesh Demographic and Health Survey

C-sectionCaesarean section

FDFacility delivery

MEASURE DHSMonitoring and Evaluation to Assess and Use Results Demographic and Health Surveys

NIPORTNational Institute of Population Research and Training

SBASkilled Birth Attendant

Autor: Aminur Rahman - Monjura Khatun Nisha - Tahmina Begum - Sayem Ahmed - Nurul Alam - Iqbal Anwar


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