Biofeedback interventions for people with cerebral palsy: a systematic review protocolReport as inadecuate

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Systematic Reviews

, 6:3

First Online: 13 January 2017Received: 13 October 2016Accepted: 05 January 2017DOI: 10.1186-s13643-017-0405-y

Cite this article as: MacIntosh, A., Vignais, N. & Biddiss, E. Syst Rev 2017 6: 3. doi:10.1186-s13643-017-0405-y


BackgroundCerebral palsy is a life-long disability that affects motor control and activities of daily living. Depending on the type of cerebral palsy, some individuals may have trouble performing tasks with one or both of their arms and-or legs. Different strategies exist to help develop motor capacity. Biofeedback therapy is a commonly applied rehabilitation strategy. In biofeedback therapy, information about the motor behavior while completing a task is given back to the individual to help improve their performance. This can provide valuable information that would otherwise be unknown to the individual. Biofeedback may also have a unique method of operation in clinical populations, such as people with cerebral palsy. Therefore, it is important to identify the most effective mechanisms for specific populations. This review aims to evaluate the effects of biofeedback interventions that have been used towards improving motor performance and motor learning in people with cerebral palsy.

MethodsUsing a customized strategy, MEDLINE, CINAHL, Embase, PsycINFO, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, SCOPUS, SPORTDiscus, and PEDro databases will be searched. Two independent reviewers will screen titles and abstracts, review full texts for inclusion criteria, and extract data from relevant articles using a standardized template. Quality of evidence and risk of bias will be assessed through the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation GRADE methodology.

DiscussionSeveral studies have investigated biofeedback-based interventions for people with cerebral palsy. However, there is a great variety and limited consensus regarding how to implement biofeedback mechanisms. This systematic review will consolidate the current evidence to direct future study and develop effective biofeedback rehabilitation strategies.

Systematic review registrationPROSPERO ID: CRD42016047612

KeywordsSensory feedback Visual feedback Audio feedback Haptic feedback Neurofeedback Cues Hemiplegia Spastic diplegia Motor rehabilitation AbbreviationsCPCerebral palsy

CIMTConstraint-induced movement therapy


GMFCSGross motor function classification system

GRADEGrading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation

MACSManual ability classification system

PRISMA-PPreferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses Protocols

QUESTQuality of upper extremity skills test

RCTsRandomized controlled trials

Electronic supplementary materialThe online version of this article doi:10.1186-s13643-017-0405-y contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.

Author: Alexander MacIntosh - Nicolas Vignais - Elaine Biddiss



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