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Abstract: Today ion traps are among the most promising physical systems forconstructing a quantum device harnessing the computing power inherent in thelaws of quantum physics. The standard circuit model of quantum computingrequires a universal set of quantum logic gates for the implementation ofarbitrary quantum operations. As in classical models of computation, quantumerror correction techniques enable rectification of small imperfections in gateoperations, thus allowing for perfect computation in the presence of noise. Forfault-tolerant computation, it is commonly believed that error thresholdsranging between 10^-4 and 10^-2 will be required depending on the noise modeland the computational overhead for realizing the quantum gates. Up to now, allexperimental implementations have fallen short of these requirements. Here, wereport on a Molmer-Sorensen type gate operation entangling ions with a fidelityof 99.31% which together with single-qubit operations forms a universal setof quantum gates. The gate operation is performed on a pair of qubits encodedin two trapped calcium ions using a single amplitude-modulated laser beaminteracting with both ions at the same time. A robust gate operation, mappingseparable states onto maximally entangled states is achieved by adiabaticallyswitching the laser-ion coupling on and off. We analyse the performance of asingle gate and concatenations of up to 21 gate operations. The gate mechanismholds great promise not only for two-qubit but also for multi-qubit operations.

Autor: J. Benhelm, G. Kirchmair, C. F. Roos, R. Blatt


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