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Surgery Research and Practice - Volume 2015 2015, Article ID 494827, 11 pages -

Review Article

School of Medical Education, King’s College London, London SE1 1UL, UK

Department of Urology, Guy’s and St. Thomas’ NHS Foundation Trust, London SE1 9RT, UK

MRC Centre for Transplantation, King’s College London, London SE1 9RT, UK

Received 17 June 2015; Revised 21 August 2015; Accepted 23 August 2015

Academic Editor: Eelco de Bree

Copyright © 2015 George Whittaker et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Introduction. Deficiencies in teamwork skills have been shown to contribute to the occurrence of adverse events during surgery. Consequently, several teamwork assessment tools have been developed to evaluate trainee nontechnical performance. This paper aims to provide an overview of these instruments and review the validity of each tool. Furthermore, the present paper aims to review the deficiencies surrounding training and propose several recommendations to address these issues. Methods. A systematic literature search was conducted to identify teamwork assessment tools using MEDLINE 1946 to August 2015, EMBASE 1974 to August 2015, and PsycINFO 1806 to August 2015 databases. Results. Eight assessment tools which encompass aspects of teamwork were identified. The Nontechnical Skills for Surgeons NOTSS assessment was found to possess the highest level of validity from a variety of sources; reliability and acceptability have also been established for this tool. Conclusions. Deficits in current surgical training pathways have prompted several recommendations to meet the evolving requirements of surgeons. Recommendations from the current paper include integration of teamwork training and assessment into medical school curricula, standardised formal training of assessors to ensure accurate evaluation of nontechnical skill acquisition, and integration of concurrent technical and nontechnical skills training throughout training.

Autor: George Whittaker, Hamid Abboudi, Muhammed Shamim Khan, Prokar Dasgupta, and Kamran Ahmed



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