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antipredatory behavior, temporal variation, alternative prey, age-dependant vulnerability, seasonality, predator-prey

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Subject-Keyword: antipredatory behavior temporal variation alternative prey age-dependant vulnerability seasonality predator-prey

Type of item: Journal Article Published

Language: English

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Description: Variation in the temporal pattern of vulnerability can provide important insights into predator-prey relationships and the evolution of antipredator behavior. We illustrate these points with a system that has coyotes Canis latrans as a predator and two species of congeneric deer Odocoileus spp. as prey. The deer employ different antipredator tactics aggressive defense vs. flight that result in contrasting patterns of age-dependent vulnerability in their probability of being captured when encountered by coyotes.We use longterm survival data and a simple mathematical model to show that 1 species differences in age-dependent vulnerability are reflected in seasonal predation rates and 2 seasonal variation in prey vulnerability and predator hunt activity, which can be associated with the availability of alternative prey, interact to shape seasonal and annual predation rates for each prey species. Shifting hunt activity from summer to winter, or vice versa, alleviated annual mortality on one species and focused it on the other. Our results indicate that seasonal variation in prey vulnerability and hunt activity interact to influence the impact that a predator has on any particular type of prey. Furthermore, these results indicate that seasonal variation in predation pressure is an important selection pressure shaping prey defenses.

Date created: 2008

DOI: doi:10.7939-R3J38KK9W

License information:

Rights: Copyright 2008 by The University of Chicago. 0003-0147-2008-17205-42726$15.00. All rights reserved.





Autor: Lingle, S. Feldman, A. Boyce, M.S. Wilson, W.F.

Fuente: https://era.library.ualberta.ca/


Introducción



vol.
172, no.
5 the american naturalist  november 2008 Prey Behavior, Age-Dependent Vulnerability, and Predation Rates Susan Lingle,1,2,3,* Alex Feldman,4,† Mark S.
Boyce,3,‡ and W.
Finbarr Wilson1,§ 1.
McIntyre Ranch Coyote and Deer Project, Box 914, Magrath, Alberta T0K 1J0, Canada; 2.
Department of Neuroscience, University of Lethbridge, Lethbridge, Alberta T1K 3M4, Canada; 3.
Department of Biological Sciences, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 2E9, Canada; 4.
Department of Mathematics, Boise State University, Boise, Idaho 83725 Submitted July 15, 2007; Accepted June 10, 2008; Electronically published October 7, 2008 Online enhancements: appendixes. abstract: Variation in the temporal pattern of vulnerability can provide important insights into predator-prey relationships and the evolution of antipredator behavior.
We illustrate these points with a system that has coyotes (Canis latrans) as a predator and two species of congeneric deer (Odocoileus spp.) as prey.
The deer employ different antipredator tactics (aggressive defense vs.
flight) that result in contrasting patterns of age-dependent vulnerability in their probability of being captured when encountered by coyotes.
We use longterm survival data and a simple mathematical model to show that (1) species differences in age-dependent vulnerability are reflected in seasonal predation rates and (2) seasonal variation in prey vulnerability and predator hunt activity, which can be associated with the availability of alternative prey, interact to shape seasonal and annual predation rates for each prey species.
Shifting hunt activity from summer to winter, or vice versa, alleviated annual mortality on one species and focused it on the other.
Our results indicate that seasonal variation in prey vulnerability and hunt activity interact to influence the impact that a predator has on any particular type of prey.
Fur* Corresponding author.
Address for correspondence: Department of Biology, Univer...





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