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Applied Water Science

, Volume 7, Issue 2, pp 801–812

First Online: 26 May 2015Received: 18 July 2014Accepted: 04 May 2015DOI: 10.1007-s13201-015-0293-z

Cite this article as: Mukherjee, A., Gupta, A., Ray, R.K. et al. Appl Water Sci 2017 7: 801. doi:10.1007-s13201-015-0293-z


The continuous groundwater level data emanating from a high-frequency automatic water level recorder installed in a purpose-built piezometer provides a true hydrograph. Analyses of such hydrographs fairly reflect the aquifer character and can be used to draw inference for genetic classification of hard rock aquifers. The signature shape of annual water level fluctuation curve annual cycle of a piezometer is due to the specific character of the aquifer and the way it responds to the recharge–discharge phenomenon. The pattern of annual cycle remains identical year after year, although its magnitude may vary with the annual quantum of recharge–discharge. Lithology of the aquifer does not control the shape of the curve. Based on the crest and trough shape, the hard rock aquifers of Peninsular India, where the monsoonal pattern of rainfall occurs, have been classified into genetic groups. It is also found that the nature of the aquifer can be determined by visual comparison of apparent line thickness of the hydrograph, where thin lines denote unconfined aquifer and the apparently thicker lines correspond to confining condition. The response of an aquifer to a pumping event can be identified and separated by its pattern. Thus, the aquifer classification can be automated by adopting the proposed classification scheme.

KeywordsWell hydrograph Piezometer Aquifer response Genetic classification Peninsular India Electronic supplementary materialThe online version of this article doi:10.1007-s13201-015-0293-z contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.

Autor: Arunangshu Mukherjee - Anita Gupta - Ranjan Kumar Ray - Dinesh Tewari


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