Surface water characteristics and trace metals level of the Bonny-New Calabar River Estuary, Niger Delta, NigeriaReportar como inadecuado

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Applied Water Science

, Volume 7, Issue 2, pp 951–959

First Online: 09 July 2015Received: 30 October 2014Accepted: 23 June 2015DOI: 10.1007-s13201-015-0306-y

Cite this article as: Onojake, M.C., Sikoki, F.D., Omokheyeke, O. et al. Appl Water Sci 2017 7: 951. doi:10.1007-s13201-015-0306-y


Surface water samples from three stations in the Bonny-New Calabar River Estuary were analyzed for the physicochemical characteristics and trace metal level in 2011 and 2012, respectively. Results show pH ranged from 7.56 to 7.88 mg-L; conductivity, 33,489.00 to 33,592.00 µScm; salinity, 15.33 to 15.50 ‰; turbidity, 4.35 to 6.65 NTU; total dissolved solids, 22111.00 to 23263.00 gm; dissolved oxygen, 4.53 to 6.65 mg-L; and biochemical oxygen demand, 1.72 mg-L. The level of some trace metals Ca, Mg, K, Zn, Pb, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Ni, and Na were also analyzed by Atomic absorption spectrometry with K, Zn, and Co being statistically significant P < 0.05. The results were compared with USEPA and WHO Permissible Limits for water quality standards. It was observed that the water quality parameters in the Bonny Estuary show seasonal variation with higher values for pH, DO, BOD, temperature, and salinity during the dry season than wet season. Concentrations of trace metals such as Pb, Cd, Zn, Ni, and Cr were higher than stipulated limits by WHO 2006. The result of the Metal Pollution Index suggests that the river was slightly affected and therefore continuous monitoring is necessary to avert possible public health implications of these metals on consumers of water and seafood from the study area.

KeywordsWater quality USEPA Pollution metal index Spectrophotometer Bonny Estuary 

Autor: M. C. Onojake - F. D. Sikoki - O. Omokheyeke - R. U. Akpiri


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