The First Trimester Gravid Serum Regulates Procalcitonin Expression in Human Macrophages Skewing Their Phenotype In VitroReportar como inadecuado

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Mediators of Inflammation - Volume 2014 2014, Article ID 248963, 10 pages -

Research Article

Department of Life Sciences, University of Trieste, Via Valerio 28, 34127 Trieste, Italy

Institute for Maternal and Child Health, IRCCS “Burlo Garofolo”, 34137 Trieste, Italy

Received 18 October 2013; Accepted 29 January 2014; Published 5 March 2014

Academic Editor: Anna Chelmonska-Soyta

Copyright © 2014 Damiano Rami et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Procalcitonin PCT is one of the best diagnostic and prognostic markers in clinical practice, widely used to evaluate the evolution of bacterial infections. Although it is mainly produced by thyroid, during sepsis almost all the peripheral tissues are involved in PCT production. Parenchymal cells have been suggested as the main source of PCT expression; however the contribution of macrophages is not clear yet. In response to environmental cues, tissue macrophages acquire distinct functional phenotypes, ranging from proinflammatory M1 to anti-inflammatory M2 phenotype. Macrophages at the fetal-maternal interface show immunosuppressive M2-like activities required for the maintenance of immunological homeostasis during pregnancy. This study aims to clarify the ability to synthesise PCT of fully differentiated M0, polarized M1-M2 macrophages and those cultured either in the presence of first trimester gravid serum GS or pregnancy hormones. We found out that M1 macrophages upregulate PCT expression following LPS stimulation compared to M0 and M2. The GS downregulates PCT expression in macrophages, skewing them towards an M2-like phenotype. This effect seems only partially mediated by the hormonal milieu. Our findings strengthen the key role of macrophages in counteracting inflammatory stimuli during pregnancy, suggesting PCT as a possible new marker of M1-like macrophages.

Autor: Damiano Rami, Martina La Bianca, Chiara Agostinis, Giorgio Zauli, Oriano Radillo, and Roberta Bulla



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