Bladder Carcinoma Data with Clinical Risk Factors and Molecular Markers: A Cluster AnalysisReport as inadecuate

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BioMed Research International - Volume 2015 2015, Article ID 168682, 14 pages -

Research Article

Urology Department, Hospital Clinico San Carlos, Complutense University, Instituto de Investigacion Sanitaria San Carlos IdISSC, 28040 Madrid, Spain

Natural Computing Laboratory LCoN, Mackenzie Presbyterian University, 01302-000 São Paulo, SP, Brazil

Clinical Analysis Department, Hospital Clinico Universitario San Carlos, 28040 Madrid, Spain

Odontology School, Complutense University, 28040 Madrid, Spain

Biomedical Research Institute of Salamanca-BISITE Research Group, University of Salamanca, Edificio I+D+i, 37008 Salamanca, Spain

Received 28 September 2014; Revised 5 January 2015; Accepted 15 January 2015

Academic Editor: Isabelle Bichindaritz

Copyright © 2015 Enrique Redondo-Gonzalez et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Bladder cancer occurs in the epithelial lining of the urinary bladder and is amongst the most common types of cancer in humans, killing thousands of people a year. This paper is based on the hypothesis that the use of clinical and histopathological data together with information about the concentration of various molecular markers in patients is useful for the prediction of outcomes and the design of treatments of nonmuscle invasive bladder carcinoma NMIBC. A population of 45 patients with a new diagnosis of NMIBC was selected. Patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia BPH, muscle invasive bladder carcinoma MIBC, carcinoma in situ CIS, and NMIBC recurrent tumors were not included due to their different clinical behavior. Clinical history was obtained by means of anamnesis and physical examination, and preoperative imaging and urine cytology were carried out for all patients. Then, patients underwent conventional transurethral resection TURBT and some proteomic analyses quantified the biomarkers p53, neu, and EGFR. A postoperative follow-up was performed to detect relapse and progression. Clusterings were performed to find groups with clinical, molecular markers, histopathological prognostic factors, and statistics about recurrence, progression, and overall survival of patients with NMIBC. Four groups were found according to tumor sizes, risk of relapse or progression, and biological behavior. Outlier patients were also detected and categorized according to their clinical characters and biological behavior.

Author: Enrique Redondo-Gonzalez, Leandro Nunes de Castro, Jesús Moreno-Sierra, María Luisa Maestro de las Casas, Vicente Vera-Gonza



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