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Abstract: Primordial black holes PBHs are a profound signature of primordialcosmological structures and provide a theoretical tool to study nontrivialphysics of the early Universe. The mechanisms of PBH formation are discussedand observational constraints on the PBH spectrum, or effects of PBHevaporation, are shown to restrict a wide range of particle physics models,predicting an enhancement of the ultraviolet part of the spectrum of densityperturbations, early dust-like stages, first order phase transitions and stagesof superheavy metastable particle dominance in the early Universe. Themechanism of closed wall contraction can lead, in the inflationary Universe, toa new approach to galaxy formation, involving primordial clouds of massive BHscreated around the intermediate mass or supermassive BH and playing the role ofgalactic seeds.

Autor: M. Yu. Khlopov


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