Antibiotic resistance rates and physician antibiotic prescription patterns of uncomplicated urinary tract infections in southern Chinese primary careReport as inadecuate

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Uncomplicated urinary tract infections UTI are common in primary care. Whilst primary care physicians are called to be antimicrobial stewards, there is limited primary care antibiotic resistance surveillance and physician antibiotic prescription data available in southern Chinese primary care. The study aimed to investigate the antibiotic resistance rate and antibiotic prescription patterns in female patients with uncomplicated UTI. Factors associated with antibiotic resistance and prescription was explored. A prospective cohort study was conducted in 12 primary care group clinics in Hong Kong of patients presenting with symptoms of uncomplicated UTI from January 2012 to December 2013. Patients’ characteristics such as age, comorbidity, presenting symptoms and prior antibiotic use were recorded by physicians, as well as any empirical antibiotic prescription given at presentation. Urine samples were collected to test for antibiotic resistance of uropathogens. Univariate analysis was conducted to identify factors associated with antibiotic resistance and prescription. A total of 298 patients were included in the study. E. coli was detected in 107 76% out of the 141 positive urine samples. Antibiotic resistance rates of E. coli isolates for ampicillin, co-trimoxazole, ciprofloxacin, amoxicillin and nitrofurantoin were 59.8%, 31.8%, 23.4%, 1.9% and 0.9% respectively. E. coli isolates were sensitive to nitrofurantoin 98.1% followed by amoxicillin 78.5%. The overall physician antibiotic prescription rate was 82.2%. Amoxicillin 39.6% and nitrofurantoin 28.6% were the most common prescribed antibiotics. Meanwhile, whilst physicians in public primary care prescribed more amoxicillin OR: 2.84, 95% CI: 1.67 to 4.85, P<0.001 and nitrofurantoin OR: 2.01, 95% CI: 1.14 to 3.55, P = 0.015, physicians in private clinics prescribed more cefuroxime and ciprofloxacin P<0.05. Matching of antibiotic prescription and antibiotic sensitivity of E. coli isolates occurred in public than private primary care prescriptions OR: 6.72, 95% CI: 2.07 to 21.80 P = 0.001 and for other uropathogens OR: 6.19, 95% CI: 1.04 to 36.78 P = 0.034. Mismatching differences of antibiotic prescription and resistance were not evident. In conclusion, nitrofurantoin and amoxicillin should be used as first line antibiotic treatment for uncomplicated UTI. There were significant differences in antibiotic prescription patterns between public and private primary care. Public primary care practitioners were more likely to prescribe first line antibiotic treatment which match antibiotic sensitivity of E. coli isolates and other uropathogens. Further exploration of physician prescribing behaviour and educational interventions, particularly in private primary care may helpful. Meanwhile, development and dissemination of guidelines for primary care management of uncomplicated UTI as well as continued surveillance of antibiotic resistance and physician antibiotic prescription is recommended.

Author: Carmen Ka Man Wong , Kenny Kung, Philip Lung Wai Au-Doung, Margaret Ip, Nelson Lee, Alice Fung, Samuel Yeung Shan Wong



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