First report and molecular identification of Opisthorchis viverrini infection in human communities from Lower MyanmarReport as inadecuate

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Opisthorchis viverrini is endemic in the South East Asian region, especially in Cambodia, Lao People-s Democratic Republic, Vietnam and Thailand, but there have been no previous records from Myanmar. During stool surveys of rural populations in three regions of Lower Myanmar, Opisthorchis-like eggs were found in 34 out of 364 9.3% participants by stool microscopy after using the modified formalin-ether concentration technique. DNA was extracted from these positive stool samples and a portion of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I cox1 gene was amplified using the polymerase chain reaction and then sequenced. DNA sequences, successfully obtained from 18 of 34 positive samples Bago Region, n = 13; Mon State, n = 3; Yangon Region, n = 2, confirmed that the eggs were of O. viverrini. Sequences showed 99.7% identity with O. viverrini mitochondrial cox1 GenBank accession no. JF739555 but 95%, 88.7%, 82.6% and 81.4% identities with those of Opisthorchis lobatus from Lao People-s Democratic Republic GenBank accession nos. HQ328539-HQ328541, Metorchis orientalis from China KT239342, Clonorchis sinensis from China JF729303 and Opisthorchis felineus from Russia EU921260, respectively. When alignement with other Opisthorchiidae trematodes, 81% similarity with Metorchis bilis from Czech Republic GenBank accession nos. KT740966, KT740969, KT740970 and Slovakia GenBank accession nos. KT740971-KT740973, 84.6% similarity with Metorchis xanthosomus from Czech Republic GenBank accession no. KT740974, 78.6% similarity with M. xanthosomus from Poland GenBank accession no. KT740968 and 82.2% similarity with Euamphimerus pancreaticus from Czech Republic GenBank accession no. KT740975 were revealed. This study demonstrated, for the first time, O. viverrini from rural people in Myanmar using molecular methods and is an urgent call for surveillance and control activities against opisthorchiasis in Myanmar.

Author: Win Pa Pa Aung, Thi Thi Htoon, Htay Htay Tin, Kyi Kyi Thinn, Oranuch Sanpool, Jurairat Jongthawin, Lakkhana Sadaow, Issarapong Ph



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