EnHERV: Enrichment analysis of specific human endogenous retrovirus patterns and their neighboring genesReport as inadecuate




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Human endogenous retroviruses HERVs are flanked by long terminal repeats LTRs, which contain the regulation part of the retrovirus. Remaining HERVs constitute 7% to 8% of the present day human genome, and most have been identified as solo LTRs. The HERV sequences have been associated with several molecular functions as well as certain diseases in human, but their roles in human diseases are yet to be established. We designed EnHERV to make accessible the identified endogenous retrovirus repetitive sequences from Repbase Update a database of eukaryotic repetitive elements that are present in the human genome. Defragmentation process was done to improve the RepeatMasker annotation output. The defragmented elements were used as core database in EnHERV. EnHERV is available at http:-sysbio.chula.ac.th-enherv and can be searched using either gene lists of user interest or HERV characteristics. Besides the search function, EnHERV also provides an enrichment analysis function that allows users to perform enrichment analysis between selected HERV characteristics and user-input gene lists, especially genes with the expression profile of a certain disease. EnHERV will facilitate exploratory studies of specific HERV characteristics that control gene expression patterns related to various disease conditions. Here we analyzed 25 selected HERV groups-names from all four HERV superfamilies, using the sense and anti-sense directions of the HERV and gene expression profiles from 49 specific tissue and disease conditions. We found that intragenic HERVs were associated with down-regulated genes in most cancer conditions and in psoriatic skin tissues and associated with up-regulated genes in immune cells particularly from systemic lupus erythematosus SLE patients. EnHERV allowed the analysis of how different types of LTRs were differentially associated with specific gene expression profiles in particular disease conditions for further studies into their mechanisms and functions.



Author: Pumipat Tongyoo, Yingyos Avihingsanon, Santhitham Prom-On, Apiwat Mutirangura, Wuttichai Mhuantong, Nattiya Hirankarn

Source: http://plos.srce.hr/



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