Is the current pertussis incidence only the results of testing A spatial and space-time analysis of pertussis surveillance data using cluster detection methods and geographically weighted regression modellingReport as inadecuate




Is the current pertussis incidence only the results of testing A spatial and space-time analysis of pertussis surveillance data using cluster detection methods and geographically weighted regression modelling - Download this document for free, or read online. Document in PDF available to download.

Background

Despite high vaccination coverage, pertussis incidence in the Netherlands is amongst the highest in Europe with a shifting tendency towards adults and elderly. Early detection of outbreaks and preventive actions are necessary to prevent severe complications in infants. Efficient pertussis control requires additional background knowledge about the determinants of testing and possible determinants of the current pertussis incidence. Therefore, the aim of our study is to examine the possibility of locating possible pertussis outbreaks using space-time cluster detection and to examine the determinants of pertussis testing and incidence using geographically weighted regression models.

Methods

We analysed laboratory registry data including all geocoded pertussis tests in the southern area of the Netherlands between 2007 and 2013. Socio-demographic and infrastructure-related population data were matched to the geo-coded laboratory data. The spatial scan statistic was applied to detect spatial and space-time clusters of testing, incidence and test-positivity. Geographically weighted Poisson regression GWPR models were then constructed to model the associations between the age-specific rates of testing and incidence and possible population-based determinants.

Results

Space-time clusters for pertussis incidence overlapped with space-time clusters for testing, reflecting a strong relationship between testing and incidence, irrespective of the examined age group. Testing for pertussis itself was overall associated with lower socio-economic status, multi-person-households, proximity to primary school and availability of healthcare. The current incidence in contradiction is mainly determined by testing and is not associated with a lower socioeconomic status.

Discussion

Testing for pertussis follows to an extent the general healthcare seeking behaviour for common respiratory infections, whereas the current pertussis incidence is largely the result of testing. More testing would thus not necessarily improve pertussis control. Detecting outbreaks using space-time cluster detection is feasible but needs to adjust for the strong impact of testing on the detection of pertussis cases.



Author: Boris Kauhl , Jeanne Heil, Christian J. P. A. Hoebe, Jürgen Schweikart, Thomas Krafft, Nicole H. T. M. Dukers-Muijrers

Source: http://plos.srce.hr/



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