The relationship of serum vitamins A, D, E and LL-37 levels with allergic status, tonsillar virus detection and immune responseReport as inadecuate




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Background

Tonsils have an active role in immune defence and inducing and maintaining tolerance to allergens. Vitamins A, D, and E, and antimicrobial peptide LL-37 may have immunomodulatory effects. We studied how their serum levels were associated with allergy status, intratonsillar-nasopharyngeal virus detection and intratonsillar expression of T cell- and innate immune response-specific cytokines, transcription factors and type I-II-III interferons in patients undergoing tonsillectomy.

Methods

110 elective tonsillectomy patients participated. Serum levels of vitamins A, 25OHD, and E, LL-37 and allergen-specific IgE as well as nasopharyngeal-intratonsillar respiratory viruses were analyzed. The mRNA expression of IFN-α, IFN-β, IFN-γ, IL-10, IL-13, IL-17, IL-28, IL-29, IL-37, TGF-β, FOXP3, GATA3, RORC2 and Tbet in tonsils were analyzed by quantitative RT-PCR.

Results

The median age of the patients was 16 years range 3–60, 28% of subjects had atopy, and 57% carried ≥1 respiratory virus in nasopharynx. Detection of viruses decreased by age. Higher vitamin A levels showed borderline significance with less viral detection P = 0.056. Higher 25OHD was associated with less allergic rhinitis and atopy P < 0.05 and higher vitamin E with less self-reported allergy P < 0.05. In gene expression analyses, 25OHD was associated with higher IL-37, vitamin A with higher IFN-γ and vitamin E with less IL-28 P < 0.05. LL-37 was associated with less FOXP3, RORC2 and IL-17 in tonsils P < 0.05.

Conclusions

Vitamin D and E levels were associated with less allergic disorders. Vitamin A was linked to antiviral and vitamin D with anti-inflammatory activity. LL-37 and was linked to T regulatory cell effects.



Author: Varpu Elenius , Oscar Palomares, Matti Waris, Riitta Turunen, Tuomo Puhakka, Beate Rückert, Tytti Vuorinen, Tobias Allander, Ter

Source: http://plos.srce.hr/



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