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Journal of Immunology Research - Volume 2015 2015, Article ID 951424, 20 pages -

Review Article

Immunology Research Laboratory, IRCCS Istituto Auxologico Italiano, Via Zucchi 18, 20095 Cusano Milanino, Italy

Department of Clinical Sciences and Community Health, University of Milan, Via Festa del Perdono 7, 20122 Milan, Italy

Division of Rheumatology, Istituto Ortopedico Gaetano Pini, Piazza Cardinal Ferrari 1, 20122 Milan, Italy

Received 24 December 2014; Accepted 15 April 2015

Academic Editor: Mahboobeh Mahdavinia

Copyright © 2015 Cecilia Beatrice Chighizola et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Vascular thrombosis and pregnancy morbidity represent the clinical manifestations of antiphospholipid syndrome APS, which is serologically characterized by the persistent positivity of antiphospholipid antibodies aPL. Antiplatelet and anticoagulant agents currently provide the mainstay of APS treatment. However, the debate is still open: controversies involve the intensity and the duration of anticoagulation and the treatment of stroke and refractory cases. Unfortunately, the literature cannot provide definite answers to these controversial issues as it is flawed by many limitations, mainly due to the recruitment of patients not fulfilling laboratory and clinical criteria for APS. The recommended therapeutic management of different aPL-related clinical manifestations is hereby presented, with a critical appraisal of the evidence supporting such approaches. Cutting edge therapeutic strategies are also discussed, presenting the pioneer reports about the efficacy of novel pharmacological agents in APS. Thanks to a better understanding of aPL pathogenic mechanisms, new therapeutic targets will soon be explored. Much work is still to be done to unravel the most controversial issues about APS management: future studies are warranted to define the optimal management according to aPL risk profile and to assess the impact of a strict control of cardiovascular risk factors on disease control.

Autor: Cecilia Beatrice Chighizola, Tania Ubiali, and Pier Luigi Meroni



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