Rotavirus and Serotonin Cross-Talk in DiarrhoeaReport as inadecuate

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Rotavirus RV has been shown to infect and stimulate secretion of serotonin from human enterochromaffin EC cells and to infect EC cells in the small intestine of mice. It remains to identify which intracellularly expressed viral proteins is responsible for this novel property and to further establish the clinical role of serotonin in RV infection. First, we found that siRNA specifically silencing NSP4 siRNANSP4 significantly attenuated secretion of serotonin from Rhesus rotavirus RRV infected EC tumor cells compared to siRNAVP4, siRNAVP6 and siRNAVP7. Second, intracellular calcium mobilization and diarrhoeal capacity from virulent and avirulent porcine viruses correlated with the capacity to release serotonin from EC tumor cells. Third, following administration of serotonin, all 10-10 infants, but no 0-8 adult mice, responded with diarrhoea. Finally, blocking of serotonin receptors using Ondansetron significantly attenuated murine RV strain EDIM diarrhoea in infant mice 2.9 vs 4.5 days. Ondansetron-treated mice n = 11 had significantly p < 0.05 less diarrhoea, lower diarrhoea severity score and lower total diarrhoea output as compared to mock-treated mice n = 9. Similarly, Ondansetron-treated mice had better weight gain than mock-treated animals p < 0.05. A most surprising finding was that the serotonin receptor antagonist significantly p < 0.05 also attenuated total viral shedding. In summary, we show that intracellularly expressed NSP4 stimulates release of serotonin from human EC tumor cells and that serotonin participates in RV diarrhoea, which can be attenuated by Ondansetron.

Author: Sonja Bialowas , Marie Hagbom , Johan Nordgren, Thommie Karlsson, Sumit Sharma, Karl-Eric Magnusson, Lennart Svensson



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