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Background

Current control policies for intestinal parasitosis focuses on soil-transmitted helminths, being ineffective against Giardia intestinalis, a highly prevalent protozoon that impacts children’s nutritional status in developing countries. The objective of this study was to explore spatial and molecular epidemiology of Giardia intestinalis in children of Amerindian descent in the Brazilian Amazon.

Methodology-Principal Findings

A cross sectional survey was performed in the Brazilian Amazon with 433 children aged 1 to 14 years. Fecal samples were processed through parasitological techniques and molecular characterization. Prevalence of G. intestinalis infection was 16.9% 73-433, reaching 22.2% 35-158 among children aged 2–5 years, and a wide distribution throughout the city with some hot spots. Positivity-rate was similar among children living in distinct socioeconomic strata 48-280 17.1% and 19-116 16.4% below and above the poverty line, respectively. Sequencing of the β-giardin gene revealed 52.2% n = 12 of assemblage A and 47.8% n = 11 of assemblage B with high haplotype diversity for the latter. The isolates clustered into two well-supported G. intestinalis clades. A total of 38 haplotypes were obtained, with the following subassemblages distribution: 5.3% n = 2 AII, 26.3% n = 10 AIII, 7.9% n = 3 BIII, and 60.5% n = 23 new B genotypes not previously described.

Conclusions-Significance

Giardia intestinalis infection presents a high prevalence rate among Amerindian descended children living in Santa Isabel do Rio Negro-Amazon. The wide distribution observed in a small city suggests the presence of multiple sources of infection, which could be related to environmental contamination with feces, possibly of human and animal origin, highlighting the need of improving sanitation, safe water supply and access to diagnosis and adequate treatment of infections.



Autor: Beatriz Coronato Nunes, Márcio G. Pavan, Lauren H. Jaeger, Kerla J. L. Monteiro, Samanta C. C. Xavier, Fernando A. Monteiro, Má

Fuente: http://plos.srce.hr/



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