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Parkinson-s DiseaseVolume 2010 2010, Article ID 480260, 9 pages

Review Article

New York University School of Medicine, Department of Neurology, Division of Movement Disorders, New York, NY 10016, USA

Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, Johnson Rehabilitation Institute, Edison, NJ 08818, USA

Received 13 August 2010; Accepted 20 December 2010

Academic Editor: Ray Chaudhuri

Copyright © 2010 Sara Varanese et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Patients at late stage Parkinson-s disease PD develop several motor and nonmotor complications, which dramatically impair their quality of life. These complications include motor fluctuations, dyskinesia, unpredictable or absent response to medications, falls, dysautonomia, dementia, hallucinations, sleep disorders, depression, and psychosis. The therapeutic management should be driven by the attempt to create a balance between benefit and side effects of the pharmacological treatments available. Supportive care, including physical and rehabilitative interventions, speech therapy, occupational therapy, and nursing care, has a key role in the late stage of disease. In this review we discuss the several complications experienced by advance PD patients and their management. The importance of an integrative approach, including both pharmacological and supportive interventions, is emphasized.

Autor: Sara Varanese, Zoe Birnbaum, Roger Rossi, and Alessandro Di Rocco



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