Effects of the Commercial Flame Retardant Mixture DE-71 on Cytokine Production by Human Immune CellsReportar como inadecuado




Effects of the Commercial Flame Retardant Mixture DE-71 on Cytokine Production by Human Immune Cells - Descarga este documento en PDF. Documentación en PDF para descargar gratis. Disponible también para leer online.

Introduction

Although production of polybrominated diphenyl ethers PBDEs is now banned, release from existing products will continue for many years. The PBDEs are assumed to be neurotoxic and toxic to endocrine organs at low concentrations. Their effect on the immune system has not been investigated thoroughly. We aimed to investigate the influence of DE-71 on cytokine production by peripheral blood mononuclear cells PBMCs stimulated with Escherichia Coli lipopolysaccharide LPS or phytohaemagglutinin-L PHA-L.

Material and Methods

PBMCs isolated from healthy donors were pre-incubated with DE-71 at various concentrations and subsequently incubated with the monocyte stimulator LPS, or the T-cell activator PHA-L. Interferon IFN-γ, interleukin IL-1β, IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, tumor necrosis factor TNF-α, IL-17A, and IL-17F were quantified in the supernatants by Luminex kits.

Results

At non-cytotoxic concentrations 0.01–10 μg-mL, DE-71 significantly enhanced secretion of IL-1β, IL-6, CXCL8, IL-10, and TNF-α p<0.001–0.019; n = 6 from LPS-stimulated PBMCs. IFN-γ, TNF-α, IL-17A, and IL-17F p = <0.001–0.043; n = 6 secretion were enhanced from PHA-L-stimulated PBMCs as well. Secretion of IL-1β, IL-2, IL-10, IL-8 and IL-6 was not significantly affected by DE-71.

Conclusions

We demonstrate an enhancing effect of DE-71 on cytokine production by normal human PBMCs stimulated with LPS or PHA-L ex vivo.



Autor: Thit Mynster Kronborg, Juliana Frohnert Hansen, Claus Henrik Nielsen, Louise Ramhøj, Marie Frederiksen, Katrin Vorkamp, Ulla Fel

Fuente: http://plos.srce.hr/



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