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Since domestication, significant genetic improvement has been achieved for many traits of commercial importance in cattle, including adaptation, appearance and production. In response to such intense selection pressures, the bovine genome has undergone changes at the underlying regions of functional genetic variants, which are termed -selection signatures-. This article reviews 64 recent 2009–2015 investigations testing genomic diversity for departure from neutrality in worldwide cattle populations. In particular, we constructed a meta-assembly of 16,158 selection signatures for individual breeds and their archetype groups European, African, Zebu and composite from 56 genome-wide scans representing 70,743 animals of 90 pure and crossbred cattle breeds. Meta-selection-scores MSS were computed by combining published results at every given locus, within a sliding window span. MSS were adjusted for common samples across studies and were weighted for significance thresholds across and within studies. Published selection signatures show extensive coverage across the bovine genome, however, the meta-assembly provides a consensus profile of 263 genomic regions of which 141 were unique 113 were breed-specific and 122 were shared across cattle archetypes. The most prominent peaks of MSS represent regions under selection across multiple populations and harboured genes of known major effects coat color, polledness and muscle hypertrophy and genes known to influence polygenic traits stature, adaptation, feed efficiency, immunity, behaviour, reproduction, beef and dairy production. As the first meta-assembly of selection signatures, it offers novel insights about the hotspots of selective sweeps in the bovine genome, and this method could equally be applied to other species.



Autor: Imtiaz A. S. Randhawa , Mehar S. Khatkar, Peter C. Thomson, Herman W. Raadsma

Fuente: http://plos.srce.hr/



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