Using a Lethality Index to Assess Susceptibility of Tribolium confusum and Oryzaephilus surinamensis to InsecticidesReport as inadecuate




Using a Lethality Index to Assess Susceptibility of Tribolium confusum and Oryzaephilus surinamensis to Insecticides - Download this document for free, or read online. Document in PDF available to download.

We evaluated knockdown caused by four insecticides: alpha-cypermethrin, chlorfenapyr, pirimiphos-methyl and fipronil against adults of Tribolium confusum Jacquelin Duval, the confused flour beetle and Oryzaephilus surinamensis L., the sawtoothed grain beetle. Bioassays were conducted on concrete and metal surfaces. Adults of the tested species were exposed on both surfaces treated with the above insecticides at two doses low and high. Knockdown assessment was done after 15, 30 and 60 min of adult exposure in the treated surfaces. Also, after 1, 3, 5, 7 and 14 d of exposure, a lethality index was calculated with an equation resulting to values from 0 to 100, where 100 indicated complete mortality and 0 complete survival. We also developed a lethality index by ranking each adult on each surface from 0 to 4, 0: adults moved normally, 1: adults were knocked down, but were able to walk for short intervals, 2: adults were knocked down and unable to walk, but with visible movement of antennae etc., 3: adults were knocked down, with very minimal movement of the tarsi and the antennae and 4: adults were dead no movement. Knockdown of adults immediately after exposure 15–60 min was higher for pirimiphos-methyl followed by alpha-cypermethrin, for both dose rates tested and species, but only on the metal surface. The lethality index was nearly 100 for all insecticides after 5d of exposure for O. surinamensis, while for T. confusum the adult lethality index was considerably lower for alpha-cypermethrin, suggesting that that recovery from knockdown occurred. Chlorfenapyr was the only insecticide that was more effective on concrete than on metal, while the reverse was noted for the other three insecticides. These results show that knockdown has different levels, which can be used as indicators of insect mortality or recovery.



Author: Paraskevi Agrafioti , Christos G. Athanassiou , Thomas N. Vassilakos , George Vlontzos , Frank H. Arthur

Source: http://plos.srce.hr/



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