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Mediators of InflammationVolume 2013 2013, Article ID 434010, 6 pages

Research ArticleInstitute for Maternal and Child Health, IRCCS “Burlo Garofolo,” Via dell-Istria, 65-1, 34137 Trieste, Italy

Received 23 November 2012; Accepted 16 February 2013

Academic Editor: Guanglin Cui

Copyright © 2013 Giulio Kleiner et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Growing knowledge about the cytokine network response has led to a better comprehension of mechanisms of pathologies and to the development of new treatments with biological drugs, able to block specific molecules of the immune response. Indeed, when the cytokine production is deregulated, diseases often occur. The understanding of the physiological mechanism of the cytokine network would be useful to better comprehend pathological conditions. Moreover, since the immune system and response change their properties with development, differences in patients- age should be taken into account, both in physiological and in pathological conditions. In this study, we analyzed the profile of 48 cytokines and chemokines in the serum of healthy subjects, comparing adults ≥18 years with young children and children 1–6 and 7–17 years. We found that a certain number of cytokines were not being produced in healthy subjects; others showed a constant serum level amongst the groups. Certain cytokines exhibited a downward or an upward trend with increasing age. The remaining cytokines were up- or downregulated in the group of the children with respect to the other groups. In conclusion, we drew some kinds of guidelines about the physiological production of cytokines and chemokines, underling the difference caused by aging.

Author: Giulio Kleiner, Annalisa Marcuzzi, Valentina Zanin, Lorenzo Monasta, and Giorgio Zauli



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