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One expression of executive control involves proactive preparation for future events, and this contrasts with stimulus driven reactive control exerted in response to events. Here we describe findings from a response inhibition task, delivered using a smartphone-based platform, that allowed us to index proactive and reactive inhibitory self-control in a large community sample n = 12,496. Change in stop-signal reaction time SSRT when participants are provided with advance information about an upcoming trial, compared to when they are not, provides a measure of proactive control while SSRT in the absence of advance information provides a measure of reactive control. Both forms of control rely on overlapping frontostriatal pathways known to deteriorate in healthy aging, an age-related decline that occurs at an accelerated rate in men compared to women. Here we ask whether these patterns of age-related decline are reflected in similar changes in proactive and reactive inhibitory control across the lifespan. As predicted, we observed a decline in reactive control with natural aging, with a greater rate of decline in men compared to women ~10 ms versus ~8 ms per decade of adult life. Surprisingly, the benefit of preparation, i.e. proactive control, did not change over the lifespan and women showed superior proactive control at all ages compared to men. Our results suggest that reactive and proactive inhibitory control partially rely on distinct neural substrates that are differentially sensitive to age-related change.



Autor: Peter Smittenaar , Robb B. Rutledge, Peter Zeidman, Rick A. Adams, Harriet Brown, Glyn Lewis, Raymond J. Dolan

Fuente: http://plos.srce.hr/



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