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Clinical and Developmental ImmunologyVolume 2013 2013, Article ID 294320, 9 pages

Review Article

Department of Medical Research, Chi-Mei Medical Center, Tainan 710, Taiwan

Department of Anesthesiology, Chi-Mei Medical Center, Tainan 710, Taiwan

Department of Biotechnology, National Formosa University, Yunlin 632, Taiwan

Department of Pathology, Chi-Mei Medical Center, Tainan 710, Taiwan

Institute of Medical Science, College of Health Science, Chang Jung Christian University, Tainan 711, Taiwan

Institute of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Medical College, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 701, Taiwan

Department of Anesthesiology, College of Medicine, Taipei Medical University, Taipei 110, Taiwan

Received 13 January 2013; Revised 22 March 2013; Accepted 29 March 2013

Academic Editor: Nima Rezaei

Copyright © 2013 Ying-Yin Chen et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Inflammatory cytokines within the tumor microenvironment are linked to progression in breast cancer. Interleukin- IL- 19, part of the IL-10 family, contributes to a range of diseases and disorders, such as asthma, endotoxic shock, uremia, psoriasis, and rheumatoid arthritis. IL-19 is expressed in several types of tumor cells, especially in squamous cell carcinoma of the skin, tongue, esophagus, and lung and invasive duct carcinoma of the breast. In breast cancer, IL-19 expression is correlated with increased mitotic figures, advanced tumor stage, higher metastasis, and poor survival. The mechanisms of IL-19 in breast cancer have recently been explored both in vitro and in vivo. IL-19 has an autocrine effect in breast cancer cells. It directly promotes proliferation and migration and indirectly provides a microenvironment for tumor progression, which suggests that IL-19 is a prognostic marker in breast cancer and that antagonizing IL-19 may have therapeutic potential.

Author: Ying-Yin Chen, Chien-Feng Li, Ching-Hua Yeh, Ming-Shi Chang, and Chung-Hsi Hsing



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