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Breeding for a subjective goal such as flavor is challenging, as many blueberry cultivars are grown worldwide, and identifying breeding targets relating to blueberry flavor biochemistry that have a high degree of genetic control and low environmental variability are priorities. A variety of biochemical compounds and physical characters induce the sensory responses of taste, olfaction, and somatosensation, all of which interact to create what is perceived flavor. The goal of this study was to identify the flavor compounds with a larger genetic versus environmental component regulating their expression over an array of cultivars, locations, and years. Over the course of three years, consumer panelists rated overall liking, texture, sweetness, sourness, and flavor intensity of 19 southern highbush blueberry Vaccinium corymbosum hybrids genotypes in 30 sensory panels. Significant positive correlations to overall liking of blueberry fruit P<0.001 were found with sweetness R2 = 0.70, texture R2 = 0.68, and flavor R2 = 0.63. Sourness had a significantly negative relationship with overall liking R2 = 0.55. The relationship between flavor and texture liking was also linear R2 = 0.73, P<0.0001 demonstrating interaction between olfaction and somatosensation. Partial least squares analysis was used to identify sugars, acids, and volatile compounds contributing to liking and sensory intensities, and revealed strong effects of fructose, pH, and several volatile compounds upon all sensory parameters measured. To assess the feasibility of breeding for flavor components, a three year study was conducted to compare genetic and environmental influences on flavor biochemistry. Panelists could discern genotypic variation in blueberry sensory components, and many of the compounds affecting consumer favor of blueberries, such as fructose, pH, β-caryophyllene oxide and 2-heptanone, were sufficiently genetically controlled that allocating resources for their breeding is worthwhile.



Autor: Jessica L. Gilbert, Matthew J. Guthart, Salvador A. Gezan, Melissa Pisaroglo de Carvalho, Michael L. Schwieterman, Thomas A. Colq

Fuente: http://plos.srce.hr/



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