Pycnogenol Attenuates the Release of Proinflammatory Cytokines and Expression of Perilipin 2 in Lipopolysaccharide-Stimulated Microglia in Part via Inhibition of NF-κB and AP-1 ActivationReportar como inadecuado




Pycnogenol Attenuates the Release of Proinflammatory Cytokines and Expression of Perilipin 2 in Lipopolysaccharide-Stimulated Microglia in Part via Inhibition of NF-κB and AP-1 Activation - Descarga este documento en PDF. Documentación en PDF para descargar gratis. Disponible también para leer online.

Over activation of microglia results in the production of proinflammatory agents that have been implicated in various brain diseases. Pycnogenol is a patented extract from French maritime pine bark Pinus pinaster Aiton with strong antioxidant and anti-inflammatory potency. The present study investigated whether pycnogenol may be associated with the production of proinflammatory mediators in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated BV2 mouse-derived microglia. It was found that pycnogenol treatment was dose-dependently associated with significantly less release of nitricoxide NO, TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-1β, and lower levels of intercellular adhesion molecule1 ICAM-1 and perilipin 2 PLIN2. Furthermore, this effect was replicated in primary brain microglia. Levels of inducible NO synthase mRNA and protein were attenuated, whereas there was no change in the production of the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10. Further evidence indicated that pycnogenol treatment led to the suppression of NF-κB activation through inhibition of p65 translocation into the nucleus and inhibited DNA binding of AP-1, suggesting that these proinflammatory factors are associated with NF-κB and AP-1. We conclude that pycnogenol exerts anti-inflammatory effects through inhibition of the NF-κB and AP-1pathway, and may be useful as a therapeutic agent in the prevention of diseases caused by over activation of microglia.



Autor: Bin Fan , Sai-Hong Dun, Jian-Qiu Gu, Yang Guo, Shoichiro Ikuyama

Fuente: http://plos.srce.hr/



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