Chromosomal Preimplantation Genetic Diagnosis: 25 Years and CountingReportar como inadecuado




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Journal of Fetal Medicine

, Volume 4, Issue 2, pp 51–56

First Online: 22 April 2017Received: 07 March 2017Accepted: 21 March 2017DOI: 10.1007-s40556-017-0123-5

Cite this article as: Sanders, K.D. & Griffin, D.K. J. Fetal Med. 2017 4: 51. doi:10.1007-s40556-017-0123-5

Abstract

Preimplantation genetic diagnosis PGD, first successfully carried out in humans in the early 1990s, initially involved the PCR sexing of embryos by Y- and later also X- chromosome specific detection. Because of the problems relating to misdiagnosis and contamination of this technology however the PCR based test was superseded by a FISH-based approach involving X and Y specific probes. Sexing by FISH heralded translocation screening, which was shortly followed by preimplantation genetic screening PGS for Aneuploidy. Aneuploidy is widely accepted to be the leading cause of implantation failure in assisted reproductive technology ART and a major contributor to miscarriage, especially in women of advanced maternal age. PGS AKA PGD for aneuploidy PGD-A has had a chequered history, with conflicting lines of evidence for and against its use. The current practice of trophectoderm biopsy followed by array CGH or next generation sequencing is gaining in popularity however as evidence for its efficacy grows. PGS has the potential to identify viable embryos that can be transferred thereby reducing the chances of traumatic failed IVF cycles, miscarriage or congenital abnormalities and facilitating the quickest time to live birth of chromosomally normal offspring. In parallel to chromosomal diagnoses, technology for PGD has allowed for improvements in accuracy and efficiency of the genetic screening of embryos for monogenic disorders. The number of genetic conditions available for screening has increased since the early days of PGD, with the human fertilization and embryology authority currently licensing 419 conditions in the UK 1. A novel technique known as karyomapping that involves SNP chip screening and tracing inherited chromosomal haploblocks is now licensed for the PGD detection of monogenic disorders. Its potential for the universal detection of chromosomal and monogenic disorders simultaneously however, has yet to be realized.

KeywordsPreimplantation genetic screening Preimplantation genetic diagnosis Aneuploidy Fluorescent in situ hybridization Karyomapping Next generation sequencing 



Autor: Kathryn D. Sanders - Darren K. Griffin

Fuente: https://link.springer.com/







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