Nano meets the sheet: adhesive-free application of nanocellulosic suspensions in paper conservationReportar como inadecuado

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Heritage Science

, 5:23

First Online: 15 June 2017Received: 16 December 2016Accepted: 11 April 2017DOI: 10.1186-s40494-017-0134-5

Cite this article as: Völkel, L., Ahn, K., Hähner, U. et al. Herit Sci 2017 5: 23. doi:10.1186-s40494-017-0134-5


Historical papers are often locally damaged by exogenous influences and-or have endogenously degraded paper areas. The stabilization of such papers is very important because further use of the object can cause additional damage. Different types of nanocellulose are interesting as a novel stabilizing materials for paper due to their close structural relation to the paper matrix. Therefore, the present study investigated whether the treatment of historical papers with nanocellulose suspensions is a novel method for paper stabilization. Two different types of nanocelluloses, bacterial cellulose and a mechanically nanofibrillated cellulose based on wood pulp, were tested with regard to their performance in stabilizing fragile papers. Concerning material handling and application in conservation steps, different ways to modify the suspensions were tested. The resulting suspensions were applied to historical papers from several centuries with different extents of damage. The paper-nanocellulose composites were characterized with regard to their optical and microscopic integrity and by physical and chemical analyses. The treatment of mechanical damage and the consolidation of weakened paper areas could be realized by the application of a nanocellulose suspension without an additional adhesive. The results of the treatment depend on the type of nanocellulose, on the paper material, on processing and application techniques. The paper discusses the applicability and stability of the differently prepared nanocellulose suspensions, also with regard to their mode of application and long-term performance. Advantages and limitations are addressed in detail.Open image in new windowGraphical abstractBacterial nanocellulose and nano-fibrillated cellulose from pulp can be used to consolidate damaged historic papers without the application of additional adhesives

KeywordsBacterial cellulose Nanofibrillated cellulose Paper stabilization Gel Permeation Chromatography GPC Mechanical testing Aging 

Autor: L. Völkel - K. Ahn - U. Hähner - W. Gindl-Altmutter - A. Potthast


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