The Use of Surrogate Endpoints in Regulating Medicines for Cardio-Renal Disease: Opinions of StakeholdersReportar como inadecuado

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There is discussion whether medicines can be authorized on the market based on evidence from surrogate endpoints. We assessed opinions of different stakeholders on this topic.


We conducted an online questionnaire that targeted various stakeholder groups regulatory agencies, pharmaceutical industry, academia, relevant public sector organisations and medical specialties cardiology or nephrology vs. other. Participants were enrolled through purposeful sampling. We inquired for conditions under which surrogate endpoints can be used, the validity of various cardio-renal biomarkers and new approaches for biomarker use.


Participants agreed that surrogate endpoints can be used when the surrogate is scientifically valid 5-point Likert response format, mean score: 4.3, SD: 0.9 or when there is an unmet clinical need mean score: 3.8, SD: 1.2. Industry participants agreed to a greater extent than regulators and academics. However, out of four proposed surrogates blood pressure BP, HbA1c, albuminuria, CRP for cardiovascular outcomes or end-stage renal disease, only use of BP for cardiovascular outcomes was deemed moderately accurate mean: 3.6, SD: 1.1. Specialists in cardiology or nephrology tended to be more positive about the use of surrogate endpoints.


Stakeholders in drug development do not oppose to the use of surrogate endpoints in drug marketing authorization, but most surrogates are not considered valid. To solve this impasse, increased efforts are required to validate surrogate endpoints and to explore alternative ways to use them.

Autor: Bauke Schievink, Hiddo Lambers Heerspink , Hubert Leufkens, Dick De Zeeuw, Jarno Hoekman



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