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BioMed Research InternationalVolume 2014 2014, Article ID 845207, 9 pages

Clinical Study

CIFI2D, Faculty of Sports, University of Porto, Rua Dr. Plácido Costa 91, 4200-450 Porto, Portugal

Pennington Biomedical Research Center, Louisiana State University System, Baton Rouge, LA 70808, USA

Texas Biomedical Research Institute, San Antonio, Texas 78227-5301, USA

Received 21 November 2013; Revised 12 February 2014; Accepted 25 February 2014; Published 25 March 2014

Academic Editor: Martine Thomis

Copyright © 2014 D. M. Santos et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Background and Aims. Energy expenditure has been negatively correlated with fat accumulation. However, this association is highly variable. In the present study we applied a genotype by environment interaction method to examine the presence of Genotype x by Total Daily Energy Expenditure and Genotype x by Daily Energy Expenditure interactions in the expression of different body composition traits. Methods and Results. A total of 958 subjects from 294 families of The Portuguese Healthy Family Study were included in the analysis. TDEE and DEE were assessed using a physical activity recall. Body fat percentages were measured with a bioelectrical impedance scale. GxTDEE and GxDEE examinations were performed using SOLAR 4.0 software. All BC traits were significantly heritable, with heritabilities ranging from 21% to 34%. The GxTDEE and GxDEE interaction models fitted the data better than the polygenic model for all traits. For all traits, a significant GxTDEE and GxDEE interaction was due to variance heterogeneity among distinct levels of TDEE and DEE. For WC, GxTDEE was also significant due to the genetic correlation function. Conclusions. TDEE and DEE are environmental constraints associated with the expression of individuals’ BC genotypes, leading to variability in the phenotypic expression of BC traits.

Author: D. M. Santos, P. T. Katzmarzyk, V. P. Diego, T. N. Gomes, F. K. Santos, J. Blangero, and J. A. Maia



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