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Advances in High Energy Physics - Volume 2016 2016, Article ID 3127597, 6 pages -

Research ArticleDipartimento di Fisica -E.R. Caianiello-, Universitá di Salerno and INFN Gruppo Collegato di Salerno, 84084 Fisciano, Italy

Received 13 February 2016; Revised 25 March 2016; Accepted 28 March 2016

Academic Editor: Rong-Gen Cai

Copyright © 2016 Antonio Capolupo et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. The publication of this article was funded by SCOAP



The aim of this paper is to study thermal vacuum condensate for scalar and fermion fields. We analyze the thermal states at the temperature of the cosmic microwave background CMB and we show that the vacuum expectation value of the energy momentum tensor density of photon fields reproduces the energy density and pressure of the CMB. We perform the computations in the formal framework of the Thermo Field Dynamics. We also consider the case of neutrinos and thermal states at the temperature of the neutrino cosmic background. Consistency with the estimated lower bound of the sum of the active neutrino masses is verified. In the boson sector, nontrivial contribution to the energy of the universe is given by particles of masses of the order of 10

 eV compatible with the ones of the axion-like particles. The fractal self-similar structure of the thermal radiation is also discussed and related to the coherent structure of the thermal vacuum.

Autor: Antonio Capolupo, Gaetano Lambiase, and Giuseppe Vitiello



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