Short-Term Effects of Chlorpromazine on Oxidative Stress in Erythrocyte Functionality: Activation of Metabolism and Membrane PerturbationReportar como inadecuado

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Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity - Volume 2016 2016, Article ID 2394130, 10 pages -

Research Article

Department of Chemical, Biological, Pharmaceutical and Environmental Sciences, University of Messina, V. le Ferdinando Stagno d’Alcontres 31, 98166 Messina, Italy

Virology and Microbiology AOOR Papardo-Piemonte, V. le Ferdinando Stagno d’Alcontres, 98166 Messina, Italy

Received 27 April 2016; Revised 5 July 2016; Accepted 14 July 2016

Academic Editor: Mahmoud Balbaa

Copyright © 2016 Silvana Ficarra et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


The purpose of this paper is to focus on the short-term effects of chlorpromazine on erythrocytes because it is reported that the drug, unstable in plasma but more stable in erythrocytes, interacts with erythrocyte membranes, membrane lipids, and hemoglobin. There is a rich literature about the side and therapeutic effects or complications due to chlorpromazine, but most of these studies explore the influence of long-term treatment. We think that evaluating the short-term effects of the drug may help to clarify the sequence of chlorpromazine molecular targets from which some long-term effects derive. Our results indicate that although the drug is primarily intercalated in the innermost side of the membrane, it does not influence band 3 anionic flux, lipid peroxidation, and protein carbonylation processes. On the other hand, it destabilizes and increases the autooxidation of haemoglobin, induces activation of caspase 3, and, markedly, influences the ATP and reduced glutathione levels, with subsequent exposure of phosphatidylserine at the erythrocyte surface. Overall our observations on the early stage of chlorpromazine influence on erythrocytes may contribute to better understanding of new and interesting characteristics of this compound improving knowledge of erythrocyte metabolism.

Autor: Silvana Ficarra, Annamaria Russo, Davide Barreca, Elena Giunta, Antonio Galtieri, and Ester Tellone



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