Retinoic Acid Therapy Resistance Progresses from Unilineage to Bilineage in HL-60 Leukemic BlastsReportar como inadecuado

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Emergent resistance can be progressive and driven by global signaling aberrations. All-trans retinoic acid RA is the standard therapeutic agent for acute promyelocytic leukemia, but 10–20% of patients are not responsive, and initially responsive patients relapse and develop retinoic acid resistance. The patient-derived, lineage-bipotent acute myeloblastic leukemia FAB M2 HL-60 cell line is a potent tool for characterizing differentiation-induction therapy responsiveness and resistance in t15;17-negative cells. Wild-type WT HL-60 cells undergo RA-induced granulocytic differentiation, or monocytic differentiation in response to 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 D3. Two sequentially emergent RA-resistant HL-60 cell lines, R38+ and R38-, distinguishable by RA-inducible CD38 expression, do not arrest in G1-G0 and fail to upregulate CD11b and the myeloid-associated signaling factors Vav1, c-Cbl, Lyn, Fgr, and c-Raf after RA treatment. Here, we show that the R38+ and R38- HL-60 cell lines display a progressive reduced response to D3-induced differentiation therapy. Exploiting the biphasic dynamic of induced HL-60 differentiation, we examined if resistance-related defects occurred during the first 24 h the early or -precommitment- phase or subsequently the late or -lineage-commitment- phase. HL-60 were treated with RA or D3 for 24 h, washed and retreated with either the same, different, or no differentiation agent. Using flow cytometry, D3 was able to induce CD38, CD11b and CD14 expression, and G1-G0 arrest when present during the lineage-commitment stage in R38+ cells, and to a lesser degree in R38- cells. Clustering analysis of cytometry and quantified Western blot data indicated that WT, R38+ and R38- HL-60 cells exhibited decreasing correlation between phenotypic markers and signaling factor expression. Thus differentiation induction therapy resistance can develop in stages, with initial partial RA resistance and moderate vitamin D3 responsiveness unilineage maturation block, followed by bilineage maturation block and progressive signaling defects, notably the reduced expression of Vav1, Fgr, and c-Raf.

Autor: Holly A. Jensen, Rodica P. Bunaciu, Christopher N. Ibabao, Rebecca Myers, Jeffrey D. Varner, Andrew Yen



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