ChR2 Mutants at L132 and T159 with Improved Operational Light Sensitivity for Vision RestorationReportar como inadecuado

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The ectopic expression of microbial opsin-based optogenetic sensors, such as channelrhodopsin-2 ChR2 in surviving inner retinal neurons, is a promising approach to restoring vision after retinal degeneration. However, a major limitation in using native ChR2 as a light sensor for vision restoration is the low light sensitivity of its expressing cells. Recently, two ChR2 mutations, T159C and L132C, were reported to produce higher photocurrents or have ultra light sensitivity. In this study, we created additional ChR2 mutants at these two sites to search for more light responsive ChR2 forms and evaluate their suitability for vision restoration by examining their light responsive properties in HEK cells and mouse retinal ganglion cells. We found additional ChR2 mutants at these two sites that showed a further increase in current amplitude at low light levels in the cells expressing these mutants, or operational light sensitivity. However, the increase in the operational light sensitivity was correlated with a decrease in temporal kinetics. Therefore, there is a trade-off between operational light sensitivity and temporal resolution for these more light responsive ChR2 mutants. Our results showed that for the two most light responsive mutants, L132C-T159C and L132C-T159S, the required light intensities for generating the threshold spiking activity in retinal ganglion cells were 1.5 and nearly 2 log units lower than wild-type ChR2 wt-ChR2, respectively. Additionally, their ChR2-mediated spiking activities could follow flicker frequencies up to 20 and 10 Hz, respectively, at light intensities up to 1.5 log units above their threshold levels. Thus, the use of these more light responsive ChR2 mutants could make the optogenetic approach to restoring vision more feasible.

Autor: Zhuo-Hua Pan , Tushar H. Ganjawala, Qi Lu, Elena Ivanova, Zhifei Zhang



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