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International Journal of Aerospace Engineering - Volume 2017 2017, Article ID 4326018, 10 pages -

Research Article

German Aerospace Center DLR, Münchener Straße 20, 82234 Weßling, Germany

Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology KAIST, 291 Daehak-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 34141, Republic of Korea

Institute of Flight System Dynamics, Technische Universität München TUM, Boltzmannstraße 15, 85748 Garching, Germany

Correspondence should be addressed to Michael Felux

Received 15 December 2016; Revised 15 February 2017; Accepted 27 February 2017; Published 20 March 2017

Academic Editor: Antonio Angrisano

Copyright © 2017 Michael Felux et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


The Ground Based Augmentation System GBAS is a landing system for aircraft based on differential corrections for the signals of Global Navigation Satellite Systems GNSS, such as GPS or Galileo. The main impact on the availability of current single frequency systems results from the necessary protection against ionospheric gradients. With the introduction of Galileo and the latest generation of GPS satellites, a second frequency is available for aeronautical navigation. Dual frequency methods allow forming of ionospheric free combinations of the signals, eliminating a large part of the ionospheric threats to GBAS. However, the combination of several signals increases the noise in the position solution and in the calculation of error bounds. We, therefore, developed a method to base positioning algorithms on single frequency measurements and use the second frequency only for monitoring purposes. In this paper, we describe a detailed derivation of the monitoring scheme and discuss its implications for the use in an aviation context.

Autor: Michael Felux, Mihaela-Simona Circiu, Jiyun Lee, and Florian Holzapfel



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