Exosomes in Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type I Pathogenesis: Threat or OpportunityReport as inadecuate

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Advances in Virology - Volume 2016 2016, Article ID 9852494, 8 pages -

Review Article

Molecular Pathology Unit, Cancer Research Centre CaRC, Institute for Medical Research IMR, 50588 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia

Faculty of Health Sciences, Universiti Teknologi MARA UiTM, Bertam Campus, 13200 Kepala Batas, Pulau Pinang, Malaysia

Oncological and Radiological Sciences, Advanced Medical and Dental Institute, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 13200 Kepala Batas, Pulau Pinang, Malaysia

Received 19 October 2015; Revised 7 December 2015; Accepted 20 December 2015

Academic Editor: Michael Bukrinsky

Copyright © 2016 Sin-Yeang Teow et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Nanometre-sized vesicles, also known as exosomes, are derived from endosomes of diverse cell types and present in multiple biological fluids. Depending on their cellular origins, the membrane-bound exosomes packed a variety of functional proteins and RNA species. These microvesicles are secreted into the extracellular space to facilitate intercellular communication. Collective findings demonstrated that exosomes from HIV-infected subjects share many commonalities with Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type I HIV-1 particles in terms of proteomics and lipid profiles. These observations postulated that HIV-resembled exosomes may contribute to HIV pathogenesis. Interestingly, recent reports illustrated that exosomes from body fluids could inhibit HIV infection, which then bring up a new paradigm for HIV-AIDS therapy. Accumulative findings suggested that the cellular origin of exosomes may define their effects towards HIV-1. This review summarizes the two distinctive roles of exosomes in regulating HIV pathogenesis. We also highlighted several additional factors that govern the exosomal functions. Deeper understanding on how exosomes promote or abate HIV infection can significantly contribute to the development of new and potent antiviral therapeutic strategy and vaccine designs.

Author: Sin-Yeang Teow, Alif Che Nordin, Syed A. Ali, and Alan Soo-Beng Khoo

Source: https://www.hindawi.com/


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