Genomic Evidence Reveals the Extreme Diversity and Wide Distribution of the Arsenic-Related Genes in BurkholderialesReport as inadecuate

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So far, numerous genes have been found to associate with various strategies to resist and transform the toxic metalloid arsenic here, we denote these genes as -arsenic-related genes-. However, our knowledge of the distribution, redundancies and organization of these genes in bacteria is still limited. In this study, we analyzed the 188 Burkholderiales genomes and found that 95% genomes harbored arsenic-related genes, with an average of 6.6 genes per genome. The results indicated: a compared to a low frequency of distribution for aio arsenite oxidase 12 strains, arr arsenate respiratory reductase 1 strain and arsM arsenite methytransferase-like genes 4 strains, the ars arsenic resistance system-like genes were identified in 174 strains including 1,051 genes; b 2-3 ars-like genes were clustered as ars operon and displayed a high diversity of gene organizations 68 forms which may suggest the rapid movement and evolution for ars-like genes in bacterial genomes; c the arsenite efflux system was dominant with ACR3 form rather than ArsB in Burkholderiales; d only a few numbers of arsM and arrAB are found indicating neither As III biomethylation nor AsV respiration is the primary mechanism in Burkholderiales members; e the aio-like gene is mostly flanked with ars-like genes and phosphate transport system, implying the close functional relatedness between arsenic and phosphorus metabolisms. On average, the number of arsenic-related genes per genome of strains isolated from arsenic-rich environments is more than four times higher than the strains from other environments. Compared with human, plant and animal pathogens, the environmental strains possess a larger average number of arsenic-related genes, which indicates that habitat is likely a key driver for bacterial arsenic resistance.

Author: Xiangyang Li, Linshuang Zhang, Gejiao Wang



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