# Three Levels of Cognition: Particulars, Universals, and Representals

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It isshown that apart from the two well known levels of cognition involving the epistemologicalconcepts particulars and universals, there is an intermediatelevel of cognition necessitating a new epistemological concept which we call represental. This has become necessaryas a result of emergence of statistics an empirical science, the theory ofprobability a branch of pure mathematics, and quantum mechanics as a branchof physics at the beginning of the nineteenth century. We attribute to a particularman like Mr. Joneswell defined properties like a definite number of children whereas weattribute to a man, the universal, only some general properties like having anerect body. Thus particulars and universals involve two levels of cognition.In statistics wedeal with the properties of a large number of particulars denoted by a universal,without referring to such details as which particular has which properties.Thus statistics involves a new level of cognition. In statistics, we attribute all thestatistical properties to a single entity and refer to it as the representalentity; the concept of represental man is only a generalization of theconcept of average man proposed by Quetelet in 1869. These threeepistemological concepts are distinguished by the relation they bearwith respect to the possible -states- of the particulars. For instance, Mr. Jones, a particular man,can be in the state of having either 0, or 1, or 2, … children only; a man, theuniversal, cannot be said to have either 0, or 1, or 2, … children, though thestate of having children is relevant to him but not to a chair, theuniversal; the represental man has 0 child with probability P0, 1 child with probability P1, 2 children with probability P2, …Thus the possible states are mutually exclusive inparticulars, are only relevant to the universal, and coexist in the representalwith respective probabilities. By recognizing that in statistics, the theory ofprobability, and quantum mechanics we deal with a new level of cognitioninvolving the epistemological concept of represental, the interpretationalproblems of statistical phenomena are resolved.

KEYWORDS

Three Levels of Cognition, Particulars, Universals, Representals, Monadic and Collectivistic Probabilites

Cite this paper

Umakantha, N. 2016 Three Levels of Cognition: Particulars, Universals, and Representals. Open Journal of Philosophy, 6, 335-345. doi: 10.4236-ojpp.2016.64033.

Autor: ** Nijalingappa Umakantha **

Fuente: http://www.scirp.org/