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Introduction: Stillbirth remains a public health problem with an estimateof 2.6 million stillbirths in 2015 of which 98% occurred in low- andmiddle-income countries and over three-quarters of these occurring in Sub-SaharanAfrica SSA and south Asia. Further, only ten countries carry the burden ofover 65% of total stillbirths in the world including Nigeria in the secondposition. The objective of this analysis is to estimate stillbirth rates andidentify the determinants of stillbirth in Nigeria using the 2013 Nigeria DHSdata. Methods: The study utilized the nationally-representativesample of women of reproductive age interviewed during the 2013 Nigeria DHS.Analysis was restricted to 31,671 women aged 15-49 years who had a pregnancyreaching at least seven months of gestation in the five-year period prior tothe survey. Descriptive statistics and regression analysis were performed usingStata v13 to determine significant factors related to stillbirth. Incidence RiskRatio IRR was used to assess strength of association between independent anddependent variables. Results: Overall stillbirth rate is 12.5 per 1000pregnancies, with rates as high as 22 per 1000 among women aged 15-19 yearsand as low as 6.4 per 1000 among women who received skilled ANC. Age,household wealth, higher birth order, facility delivery, Caesarean delivery,rural residence and ever use of contraceptive are consistent determinants ofstillbirth in both the bivariate and multivariate models. Women in richhouseholds have lower IRR of stillbirth 0.60; 95% CI: 0.45-0.59 as well aswomen who had ever used modern contraception IRR = 0.72; 95% CI: 0.63-0.81.However, health facility deliveries as well as deliveries through a C-section,rural residence and age older than 20 years all carry increased risk ofstillbirth IRR = 1.81; 95% CI: 1.05-1.33, IRR = 2.46; 95% CI: 2.03-2.98,IRR = 1.41; 95% CI: 1.24-1.59, and IRR = 2.23; 95% CI: 1.75-2.59respectively. Conclusions: The study revealed that there are several factorsresponsible for stillbirth in Nigeria. Age, household wealth, higher birthorder, facility delivery, Caesarean delivery, rural residence and ever use ofcontraceptive are consistent determinants of stillbirth in both the bivariateand multivariate models. There is urgent need by the National government toimprove quality of maternal health care services and interventions to improveutilization and quality of prenatal care.


Stillbirth, Determinants, Rates, Nigeria

Cite this paper

Dahiru, T. and Aliyu, A. 2016 Stillbirth in Nigeria: Rates and Risk Factors Based on 2013 Nigeria DHS. Open Access Library Journal, 3, 1-12. doi: 10.4236-oalib.1102747.

Autor: Tukur Dahiru*, Alhaji A. Aliyu



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